The post Sino-Japanese War (1894-1896) further made the imperial China relinquish more territories including loss of suzerainty of Korea, Taiwan and Manchuria (Lee and Hock 20). The fulcrum of the revolution was the Wuchang rebellion on October 10, 1911, which mainly pushed for changes through the Qing court. The revolution aimed at transforming changing the authoritarian imperial rule to a constitutional monarchy. Led by Sun Yat-sen, a new leadership came into place with him taking the president’s position. The revolution concluded on February 12, 1912 with the abdication of the “Last Emperor” Puyi.
The three people’s principle was responsible for ensuring equality, national identity and establishment of responsive policies as developed by Sun Yat-sen. China’s nationalism or People’s National Consciousness got ideologically drawn from diverse sources including Chinese American thinking, Marxism, Russian ethnological thought and American progressivism (Lee and Hock 28). Nationalism aimed at transforming China’s prosperity by overthrowing the Manchus and limiting the influence of foreign imperialism. Democracy was to proclaim the people’s rights by establishing a republic governed by a constitutional monarchy and not the imperial system. Undoubtedly, nationalism and people’s rights became his primary principles where people had to own the rights of Referendum, Initiative, Recall, and Election. Subsequently, democracy separated the different roles of the government incorporating five powers of the government of Legislation, Judicial, Executive, Examination and Control ((Lee and Hock 30). Socialism or people’s livelihood as a principle came after adoption of democracy and nationalism. It was a principle motivated by the idea to equalize land and regulate capital, which got controlled by a few people during the Qing dynasty.
Transformation of China from imperial dynasty to a constitutional republic took three stages. The military rule was