In his in-depth studies and analysis about witchcraft, Francis provides a very clear approach of the factors that had led to the thriving of the witchcraft during the 17th century in Europe. There is a lively and pragmatic approach towards the effects of Christianity, medicine, law and science on the witchcraft. Although he admits that, most communities still fall prey of witchcraft as monolithic part of cultural practices despite global advent Christianity. Some of the ancient communities framed ideas about the creator and embarked on an adventure of creating a world of witchcraft. Everything did rotate around witchcraft. People had immense belief on it
Advent of Christianity, however, provided a more formal structure and approach that arguably replaced witchcraft approach in seeking solution to problems. Certainly, there is a mental shift from believing in spirits that are feared to cause harm and destruction if not appeased to a benevolent God, who brings good tidings. Stuart further identifies this mental change to the reformation period on attitudes and beliefs on witchcraft. It was the philosophical inquisitiveness interlaced with firm religious beliefs that questioned the authenticity and the blind approach used by witches in solving very serious problems.