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Question 1 a Why and how did external and internal challenges to the Qing Dynasty in the nineteenth century affect the course of Chinese history from the middle of the nineteenth century to the fall of the Qing Dynasty in 1911?
The Qing Dynasty that lasted 1644-1912 was one of…

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This significantly affected the course of history of China as will be highlighted hereunder.
The Qing Dynasty was the last powerful empire to rule China. As earlier stated, although it began very well in its bid to transform China into a powerful state, the dynasty encountered various internal and external challenges that impacted negatively on the course of China. Firstly, the dynasty was faced with internal wrangles that created political instability. This made it difficult for China to create a stable government to fulfill Chinas development agendas. Some of the notable internal wrangles that changed the course of Chinese history include the Nian rebellion of 1853-1868; the Mao rebellion of 1850-1872; the Red Turban rebellion of 1854-1857; and the Yunnan rebellion of 1855-1863. Secondly, the Qing Dynasty was characterized by high level of corruption thereby curtailing the developments that had begun to be realized in China. The dynasty also faced the problem of lack of an able Manchu leadership. Lack of strong leadership made it extremely difficult for the dynasty to promote the development of China.
Apart from the internal issues, the course of Chinese history was also greatly affected by external factors. Firstly, the defeat of Qing government in the 19th century by foreign powers resulted in the imposition of unequal treaties on China, which greatly impacted negatively on China. For instance, the imposition of the unequal treaties, politically infringed on the national rights of China, thereby resulting in a downfall. Secondly, the imperialism of the foreign economies worsened the social suffering in China. For instance, the increased importation of cheap textile goods from foreign countries by the Qing government resulted in the collapse of most Chinese industries. The Qing dynasty also destroyed the economy of China by promoting unfavorable balance of trade, thereby resulting in the decline of the ...
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