Adding oil to fire was the on-going recession which did not make things any better for the rural or migrant class in the region.
This paper will be analyzing the aforementioned aspects, beginning with the political sphere and then shifting to the social front. With respect to the political status, Lodge has mentioned how ‘the body was not organizationally geared to undertake the urgent task of undertaking people’s war’ (Lodge, 1983) which is one of the major reasons behind the deterioration of the external mission’s leadership and politics. The formation of the said mission in 1960 was one of the four phases of the development of the external wing of the ANC. However, ‘it was criticized for isolating itself from the rank and file, and devoting too much time to international solidarity work.’ (Lodge, 1983)
To begin with, exile movements in South Africa were faced with considerable barriers owing to the cordon sanitaire of colonial territories who were themselves engaged in counter-insurgent operations. Furthermore, in towns, influx control and the police stalled political activity, and this was coupled with the fear of new legislation and police powers. Despite this strict system of controls, guerilla movements and the course of Black resistance were successful mainly because of the ‘middle peasantry’ which proved to be fundamental to such undertakings. The success was also bolstered by their own ability to succeed in overcoming the innate complications of the exile environment itself.
Here, it is necessary to point out the four different phases that the ANC went through: the establishment of an external mission in 1960, the shift in Congress leadership from within the country to outside it (owing to the arrest of its internal leadership), the collapse of the ANC/ZAPU joint operation and the reconstitution of the ANC as a major force South African black politics. With