This invasion developed because of the collapse in slave trade industry, its suppression and eradication, and most significantly the growth and spread of industrial revolution in Europe. This essay tries to explore the impact of industrial revolution on African colonization in the late 19th century.
According to Buzan and Lawson (2015), industrial revolution in Europe elevated the demand for more raw materials. Industrialization of all production modes, need for natural resources, human resources, and capital resources became the result of this revolution. Actually, Europe experienced no labor shortage. In addition, in the past two centuries Europeans had ensured great profits since they had been trading with Americans, Asians, and Africans. These profits helped them finance industrial revolution. The European resource was, however poor and thus most industries in Europe depended on raw materials from Africa, America, and Asia. For instance, cotton textile industry was among the earliest European industries that assisted in the stimulation of industrial revolution. The cotton textile industry completely depended on imported cotton. As industrialization developed and spread in the 19th century, European nations began competing for raw materials. Therefore, most European industrialists pressured their governments to consider colonizing African nations so as to create new sources for raw materials: eventually the scramble for Africa begun followed by colonization.
Additionally, Buzan and Lawson (2015) assert that industrial revolution created the need for more markets. In the late 19th century, the industrial goods produced by European industries were more than the European market could consume. Therefore, European industrialists decided to seek for markets outside Europe. This created a competition for markets and as this competition grew, the pressure on the European governments to colonize Africa became immense. The pressure