During Paleolithic period, the phenomena of motion were captured in drawings where the animals were often depicted with many legs in superimposed points attempting to explain the aspect of the action. Ancient Chinese records cover numerous mentions of devices which were claimed to give an illusion of movement to animal figures or human, yet these accounts are not clear and may refer to the real movement of the images through space (Parent 11). According to Parent (12), the only animated devices in the 19th Century included phenakistoscope, zoetrope, and praxinoscope that gave an illusion of motion from a sequence of many drawings.
The use of Phenaskiscope failed to lead to the emergence of the cinematography, which included a projector, camera, and a printer, on a single machine that allowed moving images to be displayed effectively on a screen. This was invented by the first filmmakers, Louis Lumière, and Augusta in 1894. The initial animated projection or screening was fashioned in France by Reynaud Charles-Émile, who was a science teacher in France (Parent 12). Reynaud fashioned the "Praxinoscope in 1877" and then the "Theater Optique in 1888". In 1892, Reynaud publicly projected his first animation known as "Pauvre Pierrot" in Paris. This film was remarkable since it applied film splashes (Siman-Tov 23). Most of his films did not have photographs; they were drawn straight onto the transparent strip.
In Europe, Émile Cohl, a French artist, formed the first animated movie by applying what was later recognized as traditional animation formation methods," Fantasmagorie of 9108" (Parent 18). The film majorly consisted of one stick image moving about and meeting all manner of changing objects, like a wine bottle that transforms into a flower. In addition, there were also segments of live action whereby the animator’s hands made an appearance into the scenes (Parent 20). The film was formed by drawing one edge on paper and later shooting the other side onto a negative film that gave the image a blackboard look.