This system would only be effective when the accused gave a confession.
2. Levack notes on pg. 88 that witchcraft, even though a “spiritual” crime, was tried in secular courts. Why was this the case? What does this tell us about the relationship between the church and state in the late Middle Ages?
3. How does Cohn explain the acceptance of the existence of magic, demons, and witches by the elite in the late Middle Ages? How can we see this phenomenon as connected to the rise of the inquisitorial system of justice?
Cohn states that acceptance of witchcraft, magic, demons came through the late middle age elite ruling, and it was politically influenced. Dennis has also mentioned about the role politics played in the acceptance. He has also brought out an aspect of Pope Benedict conflict and others such as wealthy Irish families, all which set the stage for the witch-hunt that would follow.
After the adoption of these changes, a witch-hunt ensured shortly after. The witches were mostly executed. My tutor notes that the papal system was the institution that came up with the inquisitorial justice system. The judge would direct the case in a bid of finding the truth.
Cohn states that the first witch-hunt started in locations where the Waldensians were thought or known to be. Daniel notes that the persecution of the Waldensians led to persecution of those who were not due to their heretical beliefs and common misconceptions. The Waldensians settlements were very remote in the Swiss and French Alps this, played a big role in the initiation of the witch-hunts. Kelly notes that mass trials started, as a result, of Waldensians persecutions; to acquire the names of the heretics torture was applied. Each suspect could be tortured until they gave names of other accused heretics.
2. As Cohn notes, the image of the night-riding witch was controversial in the sixteenth and seventeenth-century