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Fascism, Nazism, Communism - Essay Example

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Fascism, Nazism, Communism

This paper compares and contrasts Italian fascism, German Nazism and Soviet communism. “Fascism broke new grounds in its use of mass politics against the conservatives’ enemies, the left and liberals” (Paxton & Hessler, p.180). Same way fascism and communism also fought against capitalism and democracy. Hitler was not in a mood to accept an ideology like socialism. In his opinion, Germans were superior to other cultures and hence they have the right to enjoy more privileges than other cultures. Instead of working class, Hitler gave more importance to the ruling class. It should be noted that Soviet communism gave more importance to the interests of working class. It argued that the gap between the rich and poor should be reduced as much as possible and for that purpose the interests of the working class should be given priority. “Fascism and Nazism planned to make life better for the people through expanding the power of the government. Communism thought that people could have better lives if there was not a class system”(Nosotro). Italian fascism gave more importance class collaboration rather than class conflicts while Soviet communism gave more importance to class struggles rather than class collaboration. On the other hand, German Nazism gave more importance to national pride rather than socialism or economic inequalities. In fact “The catalyst to fascism was the threat of revolutionary socialism” (Paxton & Hessler, p.199). In other words, Italian fascism never believed in socialism. It argued that both working class and ruling class should work in collaboration to the economic growth of the country instead of trying to achieve socialism through revolutions. German Nazism on the other hand gave more importance to nationalism rather than economic inequalities of socialism. Hitler in a speech in 1928 argued that brutality rather than humanity is the basis of life! Man has become master of the world through conflict and continual struggle… But mankind is not a uniform and equal mass. There are differences between races. The Earth has received its culture from elite peoples; what we see today is ultimately the result of the activity and the achievements of the Aryans (Kitson, p.1925). Nazism was adamant about the supremacy of Aryan culture over other cultures. It believed that only Aryans have the right to rule the world and other cultures should work under the Aryan leadership. Both Soviet communism and German Nazism were accepted uniformly in Soviet Union and Germany. However, Italian fascism was not accepted uniformly throughout Italy. “While the worker strongholds like Turin remained close to fascist ideas whereas the underdeveloped south remained in the hands of local bosses”(Paxton & Hessler, p.184). In other words, fascism failed to attract all Italians just like Soviet communism or German Nazism. ‘Italian fascism gained power in 1920 with the help of traditional conservatives. Nazism also gained power in Germany in 1933 with help of similar alliances” (Paxton & Hessler, p.195). In short, both fascism and Nazism sought help from conservatives and fundamentalist to gain power. However, conservatives and fundamentalists were the strongest opponents of Soviet communism. Both fascism and Nazism are autocratic in nature compared to communism. Even though communism is not autocratic in nature, its principles and ideologies are not so democratic. It should be noted that Soviet communism was not giving any respect ...Show more

Summary

Fascism, Nazism & Communism Italian fascism, German Nazism and Soviet communism were the three major political ideologies or institutions in Europe during the early parts of twentieth century. The three political ideologies have many similarities and differences…
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