Similarly, in contemporary societies, heroes are known for their extra-ordinary qualities that often strike as distinctively unique and unmatched; in this regard, many of the heroes in Johnson’s book are heroic because they have special qualities, which regular average people do not have. This paper will analyze this assertion in terms of the qualities of leadership in Machiavelli, Rousseau and Marx-Engels. A Machiavellian leadership style is based on five major qualities of leadership which include being feared or loved but not hated and having the people’s support; other Machiavellian leadership qualities are display of virtues, use of one’s own arms and having intelligence (“Characteristics of a Machiavellian Leader”). Therefore, a successful Machiavellian leader must have the above qualities to be considered a hero. Leaders can only gain people’s support if they are loved or feared as opposed to being hated because hatred may ultimately result into an assassination. People’s support for a leader’s decisions is very crucial because it promotes the successful execution of strategic action plans. For a Machiavellian leader to be loved and to be supported by people, they must constantly display virtues in public even though some situations may call for actions that undermine virtues. The use of own arms ensures success for the Machiavellian leader because citizens will be more willing to sacrifice themselves for the leader than auxiliary or mercenary units. Finally, an intelligent leader rules his territory authoritatively by making intelligent decisions that ensures his success. Rousseau on the other hand posits that the function of leadership is to “change human nature, to transform each individual (who by himself is a perfect and solitary whole), into a part of a large whole” (Geothals and Sorenson 132). Therefore, leadership is regarded as a tool for transforming society, from a state of political inequality to the state of political equality. Political equality can only be achieved through transformation of the individual, by replacing self-interest by a concern for the common good; in this respect, Rousseau’s quality of leadership emphasizes the collective interests rather than the private interests of each citizen. Marx-Engels qualities of leadership aim at restructuring society by eliminating all aspects of capitalism; under this leadership, all forms of capital such as infrastructure and production means in form of land, factories and machinery must be redistributed to the citizens equally by law. Ownership of capital results to controlling mechanisms of exploitation that can be abused by the wealthy individuals; however, equal distribution of riches leads to a classless society where all citizens are united towards collective interests. Johnson presents Moses as a hero for the Hebrews basing on his heroic acts, which include taking the Hebrews out of Egyptian slavery and leading them into independent nationhood (Johnson 2). During the exodus, Moses created and gave the Hebrews their first code of divine laws and led them through forty years of trials and tribulations to the edge of the Promised Land where he eventually died. Moses also explored the Hebrew language by setting down the first five
Author’s Name Date Q5 Heroes and heroines have been part of the human society since time immemorial and acts of heroism have been prevalent in the history of mankind for many centuries. In his narrative, Johnson argues that a hero can be “anyone who has been widely and persistently over long periods been regarded as heroic by a reasonable person or even an unreasonable person” (Johnson 14)…
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