Yule also outlines six traits inherent in language but are not all realized in animal communication. Therefore, animal communication may exhibit some of them but not all of them. This includes the following: First of all is the notion of duality in which language is organized at two distinct levels which makes it possible to produce different meanings from combining same segments. For instance, b ,a , and d can be combined to produce dab and bad which have totally different meanings.(…ibid)Secondly, animals have a bistratal communication system while humans have a tristatal one. The bistratal system unlike its counterpart cannot be manipulated to produce different messages. A case in point is the mowing of a cow. This could be interpreted differently depending on the context. It could mean it needs grass, or water or calling out for its young one. Human language on the contrary as seen before combines different segments uniquely in order to vary the meanings.Displacement also indicates a variation because unlike animals, humans have the ability of expressing events that are far removed from time. Their grammar is developed and expresses the past through past tense and the future time aspect for things to come. Animal communication does not allow for such.Moreover, human language is arbitrary. There is no natural relationship between a word and its meaning. For example, preacher, vicar and clergy all refer the same person but there is no relationship between the sign and the signified.
In the paper “English as a Second Language Learning” the author analyzes the property of language and what makes language different from animal communication. Animals' system of communication is not as well developed as the human language and consequently fails to meet the threshold of a language…
This obstacle is dominant as majority of foreign students are experts as English rhetoric and grammar in their homeland. Yet as they arrive to United States, international students no doubt struggle to converse in an effective manner. This frustration continues to mount as the transition from their native language to English, which creates a barrier towards developing their linguistic and interpersonal skills.
This shows in national and state surveys indicating that ethnic and racial minority children are the most at-risk group in social institutions, with the most significant academic underachievement, high poverty rates, high teen pregnancy rates, low skill levels, and low-paying employment opportunities.
English Language Learners (ELLs) do not necessarily share a common language since they could be adults or kids who speak different languages, mostly various Asian languages and Spanish.
Ms. Ellis-Christensen relates, "Therefore, the one resource the ESL teacher usually doesn't have in the classroom is the ability to stop and explain things in a language common to all students.
Through recasts a teacher can correct a student who is making a mistaken in their oral utterances of the language (Niegorodcew). This makes recasts a very favorable method of teaching, not only because recasting is quick in its use but it also provides an ample display of the help that the student needs.
The course consists of activities for oral and visual communication, reading and writing. Oral and visual communication activities are aimed at developing fluency and accuracy in oral communication, using English in socially appropriate ways and developing appreciation for information from media sources.
It is essential that teachers and developmental researchers, among others, learn and try to explain the processes of learning for the ESL pupil (Hernández, 2003). It is well known that language ability is an integral facet of general
the use of websites, web quests, emails, CD-ROMS, text chat, word processors, internet relay chat, instant messaging, audio-video conferencing, blogs, and authoring software that promotes interactive exercises in the teaching-learning process of English as a second language.
The author states that English can be learnt in two basic methods. Firstly, the language can be learnt through acquisition. This method of learning English takes place through interaction with native speakers. Studying through a classroom setting is the second method through which a person can learn English as a second language.