In summary, linguistic knowledge revolves around three major aspects; the form of the language under study, the meanings of various forms used within the language, and the context in which the specified language is applicable. As such, linguistic critically focuses on analyses of sounds and signs used within the language to extract the meanings of the communications. Further, linguistic tries to outline how the meanings of various words in communications are influenced by the contexts of the communications. In addition, linguistic lays critical insight into the grammar used in specific languages and their implications in communication. As an example, the word ‘nigger’ as used in American system could be in reference to one’s dark skin color, or could be a form of abuse depending on the context and the mood of the speaker.
According to Lowenbergs, it is evident that there is a problem of social integration between native English speakers and non-native speakers. He observes that in nations where English is a second language, the ESL speakers find it so difficult to accept conventional ENL styles, instead opting to incorporate own vocabularies in the language to make it more acceptable. As a result, there has been development of new forms of English language divergent from the native language. Therefore, Lowenbergs proposes that the new non-native varieties of English should be acceptable as new and independent languages. As an example, he cites the massive deviation of the Nigerian English from the native English. Moreover, Lowenbergs notes that Native English is associated with colonialism, a prospect that many nations are currently trying to shy away from. As a result, allowing new variants as new languages is more acceptable in these nations. In partial agreement to Lowenbergs observations, Labov stresses on the need to understand non-standard dialects such as the Negro variant of English. He, however, proposes such an understanding as a way of