Language acquisition in human beings is evident during infancy most probably at four months. At this time the babies start to discriminate speech sounds and uses babbling which commonly comes from their mothers. They use preverbal Communication which involves gestures and vocalization to make their intents known. The way they acquire this type of language skills is universal and therefore the syntax process takes place slowly as they develop1. The syntactic development of the child is explained using two theories or approaches. The first one includes Nativist theory which argues that children have an innate language acquisition device (LAD). It assumes that LAD is a small area in the brain which has a collection of syntactic rules for all the languages that he or she may be interacting with. The theory notes that the environment alone gives communication full of errors and therefore the device provides the child with novel ability to construct sentences using learned vocabulary. Therefore because of possession of this LAD they are able to learn any language without the interference of the incomplete information from the environment. The second theory known as the empiricist opposes the fist theory. It argues that there is enough information that can develop the linguistic domain of a child and not LAD.Empiricist believes that brain process is sufficient enough for language development in babies. For a child to acquire language fast, then engagement with environment more often is needed in order to stimulate the rate of development.
The development and acquisition of language can be taken to include changes that occur in a human being over time in his or her life time with the knowledge of passing information. It spans from infants all through adulthood to death. Meaning when one is born the development process takes various perspectives. …
According to Kail & Cavanaugh (2010) it is the case that the life span perspective of development holds that ageing is simply a part of life and that there is an associated life-long process of development that begins with conception and ultimately ends with death.
It functions automatically. In contrast, the learned system is built via formal instruction, and involves conscious knowledge for the grammar rules. According to Krashen, these two systems operate independently, thus knowledge from one system cannot cross-over to the other.
His dad read: "The man named Lot was warned to take his wife and flee out of the city but his wife looked back and was turned to salt." Concerned, James asked: "What happened to the flea'"
Much as parents, teachers and other adults would enjoy children's innocent witticisms, psychologists and linguists study its form and meaning to contribute to the widening interest in language development research.
These two sub-disciplines reflect the core interests of the field in the mental representation and manipulation of linguistic knowledge, and in the acquisition of this knowledge. Since adults are largely thought to have acquired the linguistic facts of their language, the focus of adult psycholinguistic research has been on how they process language as they hear or use it.
Even before they turn one, babies are able to understand the meaning of words and by their first birthday, they begin to pronounce them in an effort to communicate to those around them. The starting point is usually simple words before they finally master the language to which they have been exposed, that is, their first language.
It also plays crucial role in promoting or enhancing the efficacy of teaching programmmes. Language acquisition does not require extensive use of conscious grammatical rules, and does not require tedious drill. Real language acquisition develops slowly, and speaking skills emerge significantly later than listening skills.
Hence, an understanding of second language acquisition can enhance the capability of mainstream teachers to provide objective education in culturally and linguistically diversified framework (Fillmore & Snow, 2000; Hamayan, 1990). Current studies encapsulating the theories of language acquisition have been developed through a thorough research in several interconnected fields such as linguistics, psychology, sociology, anthropology, and neurolinguistics (Freeman & Freeman, 2001).
The main source that I plan to use is Sigelman’s book titled “Life-Span Human Development (2011). The author has comprehensively discussed how language develops right from infancy. Bot and Schrauf (2009) have also discussed the development of language of the life span. Gullberg and Bot (2010) have discussed the importance of gestures in language development.
According to the report psycholinguist and developmental psychologist studies the acquisition of native languages. Although, there is no clear explanation of how infants learn to speak. Most explanation is based on the inference that infants have a natural tendency of understanding grammar and observation that infants simulate what they hear and learn from others.
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