Language policy was also part of government projects such as nation building and democratization. Ideology also had great role in shaping policy as the countries emphasized on unity. For example, Mainland China used Herderian ideology of “one language, one nation” whereas Taiwan used both herderian and Chinaisation ideology. Hong Kong adopted monolingualism and lingusitic purism. All the three countries adopted Modern Standard Chinese language (PTH), whose standard pronunciation is Beijing Mandarin or dialect.
The two conferences on script reform in 1955 simplified Chinese character writing system, promulgated spoken PTH, and developed phonetic alphabet for unification of China (Cheng, 22). The phonetics formed the basis for language policy in all the countries. In 1958, the National People’s Congress approved Hanyu Pinyin Fangan ‘scheme for the phonetic alphabet of Chinese’ leading to emergence of a phonetic script. This pinyin offered standard pronunciation for Chinese characters and did not replace logographic Chinese script (Zhang, 567). Taiwan and Hong Kong use the traditional complex Chinese character script as the official written script.
In PRC, Putonghua is medium of instruction in school, official language in workplaces and broadcasting. Prior to adopting Putonghua in 1949, PRC promoted Guoyu as the national language (Cheng, 16-22). In Hong Kong, English was the official language until 1974 when the official languages ordinance was passed giving Chinese (Modern standard Chinese,) co-official status with English. English occupied a higher status until 1987 when Chinese acquired equal status with English as working official language through an Amendment to the language ordinance (Zhang, 573). The difference from PRC policy is that Hong Kong used PTH in written form and Cantonese as the spoken form whereas PRC promoted PTH in written and spoken form (Cheng, 156). Since 1997, Hong Kong uses English and Chinese as medium of
Mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan have a history of domination by other powers before gaining independence and this had effect on language policy. The Sino-Japanese war (1894-95) and…
Other than this licensed public warehouse and $2,000 of inventory held within it, Corporation A has no physical presence in any state in the US. In other words, it has no other property or employees in the US. Please read the applicable treaty provision and Massachusetts law and answer the questions that follow.
The author states that social isolation, by definition, reduces socialization because it alienates an individual from culture. When this happens, culture cannot be passed on from one generation to another. Communication is a necessary condition of socialization, and that factor is negatively impacted by social isolation.
It also stated that American continent was not to be considered as being subjects to any future colonization in reference to powers originating from European states.
1. The Berlin conference mainly focused on ways of Africa in a
Since the better part of the war took place in the southern states, they suffered the larger loss. It was during this period that citizens paid tax for the first time in support for the war (Lyon-Jenness, 2004). Income tax rates were raised to
In this case, the background information identifies a gap in research that the study has successfully filled. Another of the article strength stems from a detailed review of the literature to ascertain the claims that are later made in the discussion sections of the article and as such, used to make the necessary information for courses of actions to be taken for the effective teaching of EFL in Saudi Arabia.
2 pages (500 words)Coursework
Hire a pro to write a paper under your requirements!
Win a special DISCOUNT!
Put in your e-mail and click the button with your lucky finger
Apply my DISCOUNT
Got a tricky question? Receive an answer from students like you!Try us!
Let us find you an essay for FREE
Contact us via Live Chat, call us at +16312120006or send an email to email@example.com