Content words refer to words that hold meaning or content of a sentence. They are words that are known as open class words in that they allow for the adding of new other words by derivation, compounding, inflection, borrowing or coining of these other words. On the other hand function words refer to the words that contain ambiguous meaning and are used to put across grammatical relations with added words within one sentence. While content words are open class, functional words are closed class.
b. Antonyms refer to two words with opposite meaning for example the words “clean” and “dirty”. Gradable antonyms refer to a single word pair with differing meanings and occur when the two meanings are in on an uninterrupted range. An example is in the pair of words “light heavy”. Complementary antonyms refer to a single word pair with conflicting meanings, and exist when the words meanings do not lie on an uninterrupted range. An example is the pair of words “dead and alive “.Relational antonyms on the other hand refer single words pair with differing sense, and occur in a situation or a certain context of the relation in the words pair. An example is the words “patient and doctor” (Baker, 2012).
The first is the narrowing semantic change from the subordinate to the super ordinate level to level. For example the word “skyline” was earlier referred to as “horizon”. The second semantic change is the widening change where specific words are used to mean a general thing for example the word “vegetables” and “tomatoes”. Another semantic change is hyperbole, which is a change from a strong to a weak meaning for example “”slaughter and “torment” referring to the process of killing (Baker,