Name: Title: Course: Tutor: Date: Cyber Attacks on America Introduction The 11 September 2011 terrorist attack on the US exposed the vulnerability of the country to foreign attack in a way not witnessed in a long time. Since then, the public, media and even the federal government have been on alert to avert any future attacks by undertaking appropriate precautionary measures…
These include voice communication systems, financial institutions and federal agencies among others. Whereas physical attacks would be carried out by hostile foreign nations and terrorists, cyber-attacks could be executed by a wide array of enemies including organized protest groups, terrorists, foreign states and even teenagers. Additionally, Lee (2013) observes the incapacity to protect all computer networks or cell phones or pagers from attack, especially now that 95% of these gadgets are operated and owned by the private sector. Therefore, America is increasingly vulnerable to cyber-attacks which grow by breadth and complexity, indicating the need for the country to continuously adopt and re-engineer its protection approaches that would uphold its cybersecurity. Cyber-attack refers to an attack originated from a computer system against another computer system or a website, aimed at altering, stealing or erasing information or have the functionality of the targeted computer system impeded or destroyed (Lee, 2013). A report on cybercrime documented recently by Hewlett-Packard indicates that the number of cyber-attacks have risen by 42% as compared to the year 2012 (Lau & Xia, 2013). Organizations get successfully attacked 102 times weekly with the annualized cost as a result of these cyber-attacks rising to $8.9 million per organization. Furthermore, it was indicated that security breaches by an organization could cost it up to 1% of its market value. Citing the examples of recent attacks on HSBC, the New York Stock Exchange and major commercial banks such as Citi Bank and Bank of America, PricewaterhouseCoopers, PWC (2013) appreciates cyber-attacks as a serious problem in America that needs critical intervention. Types of Cyber Attacks Cyber-attacks could occur in different ways. First, it could occur in form of exploits. As explained by Vatis (2002), this form of attack involves a sequence of commands, chunk of data or piece of software which takes advantage of software bug to cause unanticipated or unintended reaction by the computer hardware, software or any piece of electronic. It normally includes denial of service, allowing privilege escalation or gaining control of the system. Secondly, the attack could take the form of eavesdropping where the attacker surreptitiously listens to private conversation. This could be done through the monitoring of faint electronic magnetic transmissions which get generated by the hardware. Moreover, attackers have penetrated even the most secure computer systems leveraging on the carelessness of authorized individuals or through deliberate deceit of such individuals. Lee (2013) refers to this as social engineering. Denial of service attacks are a unique approach to cyber-attacks. They are not used to control a system or gain unauthorized access, but rather render the system unusable. This could include multiple deliberate entry of a wrong password to lock the user or overloading the capability of a system or network so as to block it. Finally, direct access to a computer system could lead to the installation of devices that could compromise security, including modification of operating systems. It could also include downloading crucial information from the system (Brenner, 2010). Using this knowledge, cyber attackers have adopted varied approaches to executing ...
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As a result, it has increasingly become difficult to prevent and deter terror activities, leave alone predicting them. Terrorists have mastered ways of concealing their fundamentalist roots, which eventually translates to the difficulty in predicting terror attacks.
Among the main social engineering techniques identified by anti-virus providers such as McAfee and Avira as the methods for disabling target networks include 'spear phishing' emails, which are customized to appear as if from trustworthy sources (Kiountouzis & Kokolakis, 2011).
This is not just a problem in the countries where technology is highly accessible, but also with nations who practically belong to the third world. The borderless nature of the internet has become both a boon and bane for the modern world.
It marked the beginning of Terror frightened world with numerous mishaps to follow. The major security forces of the world have strengthened their operation and have manipulated every possible measures to encounter the brutal acts of terrorist, but not very often they did managed to escape from the parasitism of terror.
NO matter how advanced the security controls are, still incidents and security breaches are on the rise. There are numerous cases where IT managers have failed to provide or define adequate security for enterprise wide infrastructure of an organization. Likewise, they emphasize more or external security threats rather than internal vulnerabilities.
Why America Should Still Be On Guard From Terrorist Attacks. The United States, being a world's superpower, is less susceptible to combat defeat. However, it is more insecure to the hostility of other nations. For instance, unpretentious about its aptitude and achievements, the liberal aspect in helping others, is loved.
The armed forces also aired that the cyber defenses of the country are being challenged by sophisticated and well-organized efforts to steal classified information. Military men agree to US’ vulnerability to cyber