National security, economic vitality, and daily life of individuals vastly depend on safe, resilient, and stable cyberspace. Cyber Security is a global concern because cyberspace is increasingly becoming a crucial asset to nations. However, few countries possess an arguably secure digital infrastructure – the United States no exception (Singer & Friedman, 2014). The Department of Homeland Security, for instance, is committed to improving its cyber networks and infrastructure, as well as cyber security across all key information sectors. Meanwhile, cyber attacks and intrusions have increased significantly over the last two decades, disrupting critical operations, exposing sensitive business and personal information, and imposing exorbitant costs on economies. As a result, countries must make significant advances in securing their systems from potential state-sponsored operations and intrusions and growing threat of cybercrime (Singer & Friedman, 2014, pp67). Overall, contemporary organizations must adhere to the conventional cybersecurity standards to curb cybersecurity attacks and enhance safe security techniques.
The reasons and motivations for violations of computer security vary between hackers/crackers. For instance, some hackers are extremely skilled and vastly motivated with the goal or objective of compromising the computers of an organization for espionage or financial gain (Reveron, 2013, pp56). Other hackers are simply vandals and thrill-seekers, commonly involved or responsible for ruining websites and web pages. In most cases, attackers deface websites to make the political statement.
Furthermore, multiple cyber-crimes that occurred in the last decade targeted both private companies and government agencies. For instance, commercial websites such as Amazon.com, Yahoo.com, CNN.com, eBay.com, and Buy.com hit colossal DOS in the year 2000.