Propaganda in the first and second world wars Author Institution Abstract This paper critically looks into the subject of propaganda in the first and second World wars. Acts that were considered to be propaganda during this period will be addressed in details…
Governments manage to design propaganda through lying, telling partial truth or exaggerating issues at hand. Governments use propaganda for various reasons during wars, but the bottom in the use of propaganda is to have a competitive advantage over their enemies and win the support of their citizens. Propaganda in the first and second world wars Introduction In the book, Propaganda and Persuasion, propaganda is defined as "a deliberate and systematic attempt that aims at shaping perceptions, manipulating cognition, as well as directing behavior with the ultimate aim of achieving a response, which portrays the intention of the propagandist" (Jowett & O'Donnell, 2011). The main aim in the use of propaganda is make the respondent to act, agree or get along and assist in adopting certain policies. The use of propaganda in times war can be dated back to 1622 when Pope Gregory XV applied this technique to calm religious wars in Alsace, Bohemia, and Palatinate. Therefore, the use of propaganda appeared as the only solution, which would fight down effects of Protestant reformation (Finch, 2000). After the successful use of propaganda during the reign of Pope Gregory XV, propaganda later gained popularity in wars experienced in the nineteenth century. In the first and second world wars, the main practitioners of propaganda were the American and British governments. An American political scientist (Harold Lasswell) published a book that strongly supported the use of propaganda by American despite America’s denial in the use of this technique. Lasswell and his fellow political scientists gave a clear documentation on propaganda, which was even used by the Germans in the 1930s to acquit themselves with skills on the use of propaganda (Finch, 2000). Lasswell's publication pointed out that the application of propaganda during war times was "neither ominous nor insidious." The publication further pointed out that propaganda had become part and parcel of weapons used during wars, and it would remain as a component of wars forever. Lasswell referred propaganda as an act that encompasses the managing attitudes and opinions by directly altering social suggestion, as opposed to changing other conditions either in the environment or in the organism (Finch, 2000). The Americans and the Britons hesitated in accepting the use of propaganda as a legitimate tool in the first and second world wars. However, a British journalist by the name Beatrice Leeds pointed out that propaganda became acceptable the moment Russia got into war with Germany. The governments allied to Russia accepted that the use of propaganda would serve a fabulous deal in fighting the Germans (Marquis, 2009). One notable thing in democratic nations was the dismantling of departments of information. This was due to the perception that information/mass media played a significant role in the spread of propaganda. However, in America, the case was different due to the introduction of an Act that supported the introduction of a propaganda radio network. This network was the "Voice of America", which was assigned the responsibility of transmitting pro-American, democratic opinions across the world without mentioning propaganda. After the First World War, America, Britain, Germany, and the Soviet Union became serious debaters of the impacts of influencing their citizens' opinions through propaganda. In Germany, numerous research laboratories were set to study the ...
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World War I. From time immemorial people have ‘segregated’ themselves into different territories or kingdoms or nations. In different period of history, certain nations had the motivation to top or 'dominate' other countries, particularly through its armed forces.
According to his analysis of foreign affairs, the chief reason that the ?non-aggressive states? were making concessions to the ag- gressors was because they had rejected ?collective security, the policy of collective resistance to the aggressor and had taken up a position of non-intervention, a position of neutrality.?
But even before the invasion took place, many people across the world (including Americans) took part in mass protestations against what they sensed to be an illegitimate war carried out for unjust reasons. This is a reflection of the general public disillusionment with the functioning of government institutions.
However, for the general understanding in this study, we can define propaganda as the information that is carefully selected and conveyed to audience with the intention of influencing their opinion or attitude mainly for the political benefit of the propagandist.
Wilfred Owen’s poem, “Dulce Et Decrum Est” and Tim O’Brien’s “The Things They Carried” deal with two different wars—World War One and the Viet Nam War. While these wars seem to have little in common, Owen and O’Brien are both critical of the notion that war is honourable.
In the First World War for instance, there was Triple Entebbe incorporating Britain, France and Russia on one side. On the other side there was the Central power which was comprised of Germany, Italy and
The technological advancements enhanced the lethality of the weapons and thereby the death of many people and destruction of property. The war began in 1914 and ended in 1918 and was mainly centered in Europe.
According to the essay, at the beginning of the war the governments of the conflicting states except Germany and Russia came to the conclusion that it was necessary to create special bodies to have an informational and psychological influence on the military forces and the population of the opponent.
This kind of antagonism increased the rivalry amongst nations increasing the severity of the wars.
The few decades before 1914 were characterized by development of deadly weapons that had the capability of killing large numbers of people at ago.
This leads to stability of communities and countries through avoidance of cases of insecurity brought about by the violent actions of the oppressed as they seek to get what they perceive as their rights from their oppressors. This paper will seek to
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