The Influence of Risk Attraction and Risk Aversion in the Adoption and Diffusion of Extreme Sports Name Institution Introduction Risk theorists in the field of sport research try to explore the attraction of extreme sports. In the 1990s, the concept of ‘risk’ became related to a large body of research in sport research, and risk became one of the most important areas of analysis in the field…
As contemporary society has become preoccupied with safety and certainty, risk has steadily become a sinister phenomenon. Society has become quite obsessed with reducing risk and uncertainty that activities not directly approved by the mainstream society are immediately considered disagreeable. This essay discusses the influence of risk attraction and risk aversion in the adoption and diffusion in extreme sports. In sport, risk refers to the likelihood of actual, physical danger. In extreme sports like big wave surfing, snowboarding, and base jumping this has been assumed to indicate extremely high levels of risk, an extremely high possibility that something bad will happen, and a significant possibility of death (Kerr, 2005). Hence involvement in extreme sports has been deemed undesirable and deviant. Reasons for engagement in extreme sports are most frequently associated with the idea of ‘adrenaline rush’ or a craving to take socially undesirable and pathological risks (Cecile & Laurendeau, 2010). The hypothesis is that risk functions as a driving force for partakers with little talent but a frantic desire to hook up with the image of prestige related to extreme sports. In a culture where in taking needless risks is generally viewed as wild, irresponsible, ridiculous, and irrational, there appears to be something of a pattern toward the growing recognition of risk and uncertainty in leisure activities. In sport, there is substantial proof that risk taking is integral to numerous sporting activities. The concept of edgework by Lyng (1990) views intentional risk taking as testing the limitations of one’s capacity while sustaining sufficient control to effectively balance the limit between uncertainty and certainty. In the literature on the reason for this edgework tendency, the sensation-seeking attribute, described as the “seeking of varied, novel, complex, and intense experiences” (Cecile & Laurendeau, 2010, p. 129), has been extensively studied. Many outdoor activities have been reported to draw people who have high levels of sensation seeking attributes. The tendency to seek excitement, adventure, and arousal may accurately shed light on why individuals with high levels of sensation seeking attributes take part in extreme sports. Risk Attraction and Risk Aversion in Extreme Sports Several theorists argue that risky activities provide an escape from a society that is ever more ‘constricted by comfort’ and risk-averse (Moran, 2004, p. 60). This assumption states that some individuals feel too much pampered by the materialistic conveniences of modern society and thus look for exciting, risky activities in an attempt to break out of too much comfort. As contemporary life “is now tame and increasingly controlled” (Moran, 2004, p. 60), some individuals seek risk in outdoor activities. Hence, the need to take risks may signify an intentional reaction against the ordinary and risk-averse daily living. Even though this theory is exploratory, it appears likely that estranged individuals may experience a stronger sense of awareness when they are in the verge of death or serious injury (Pain & Pain, 2005). In fact, Schrader and Wann (1999 as cited in Moran, 2004, p. 62) claimed that one way of attaining a semblance of power over one’s life is by facing death through participation in risky activities. Another ...
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E-commerce and e-business too have now evolved and now e-government models can be seen in many countries where services are customized according to customers’ needs (Al-Shafi, 2008). Most developed countries now offer e-government services and many even offer transactional level services.
Individual’s preferring the fair lottery i.e., the risky option, over the certain income are on the other hand designated the status of being “risk-lovers”. Finally, individuals who are indifferent between a fair gamble with an expected income and a certain income of the same value are identified as being risk neutral individuals.
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Date Department of Graduate Studies CERTIFICATE OF APPROVAL This is to certify that the M.Msc. thesis of Name of Student has been approved by the Examining Committee for the thesis requirements for the Master of Metaphysical Science degree of the University of Metaphysics.
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d up their positions, which could amount to unexpected loss or profit, depending on the liquidity price; (ii) liquidity risk can heighten the Insurance Premia, which likely will decrease the amount of capital available to investors to engage in carry trade; (iii) high liquidity