The developments in film, advertisement and radio ushered a new era in communication and mass culture. Radio as a propaganda tool was first utilized by former USSR and then all the nations of the world followed the suit. Communist and capitalist propaganda used radio all over the world to promote their point of views. Third world countries used communication tools for promoting health care, education and culture. Third World countries genuinely felt the disparity in communication technologies between developed and developing countries and demanded for more just treatment. The MacBride Commission is the result of such efforts by Third World. The commission called for impartial, balanced and responsible reporting. USA opposed the commission as it deemed it more pro Soviet Union. The opponents called the proposals as instrument against freedom of press and information. This opposition came to an end with Soviet disintegration. Opinion The chapter is a detailed look at the role of different communication devices through out history and world. The writer presents different facts and figures from ancient time to colonial era in order to press the point that communication is vital aspect of any empire. The writer then discusses in detail the impact and role of telegraph from 19th Century onwards on different social and political aspects of the world. The writer then relates the development of journalism and radio with telegraph in 20th Century. At the end the writer gives a detailed look at the impact of radio during the Cold War. The chapter is according to the title and it gives a very detailed look at the historical development of international communication. The data regarding length of cables of telegraph and the spread in different areas of the world may confuse the reader but the information is very helpful in understanding the development. The writer has used simple language and starts from ancient time in order to present the main argument. The writer is able to give a cursory look at the ancient history and then focuses on colonial era in order to make argument clear. Overall the reader may find the data presented in the chapter a bit taxing but for scholarly purpose the chapter is very well documented. The logical sequence and development enable the involvement of the reader. The writer overlooks television and internet but still the effort is very good. Summary : The Technology and Society Science has brought many changes in the society. In order to investigate the issue of social changes and scientific discoveries there are two schools of thought. One group attributes all the changes in the society to the scientific inventions. For them scientific discoveries produce change in the society. The other group takes a less radical view by stating that changes in the society are going on the new scientific inventions just contribute in these changes. Both of these views take technology and society in isolation. Military and commercial needs forced improvement in communication. These social factors were to great extent satisfied by the development in the field of telegraphy, telephony and early stages of radio. The need of addressing masses in new political world gave power to press but this political urge was satisfied by television. This complex situation set the stage for broadcasting. The use of different broadcasting tools for social communication and political manipulation greatly influenced the rapid technological advancement in the field of communication. Political stimulus and economic benefits made television a popular medium for bringing change.
The Historical Context of International Communication Empires of the world were possible due to effective means of communications. From old empires to Western Colonial empires all have effective means of communication as a common factor. …
onging to alien cultures (Shenkar 2001). Some authors have put forward a new view that cultural differences as such are not absolute and depend to a large extent on the historical interactions between two countries over a long period. The stereotyping that is an integral part of any culture’s way of viewing alien cultures gets formed out of sustained historical interactions between the two nationalities concerned (Chapman, et al.
nagement of water of international rivers 25 Chapter Three – Research Methodology 3.1 Research Methodology – overview 26 3.1.1 Justification of Research Methods 27 3.1.2 Limitations of Research 28 3.2 Case studies 3.2.1 The conflict on the management of water of Nile 29 220.127.116.11 Historical development of the conflict on the management of water of Nile 29 18.104.22.168 Causes of the conflict 31 22.214.171.124 Response of the international community 34 126.96.36.199 The solution provided in the context of international law 35 188.8.131.52 Challenges related with the application of international law in the specific case 37 184.108.40.206 Critical analysis of the appropriateness and the effectiveness of the solution provide
6 Is there a model of East Asian employment relations? 8 Employment relations in Japan 9 Employment relations in China 10 Specific issues of International HRM for MNCs operating across borders 10 Role of ILO in improving international employment standards 11 Is ILO more effective than national governments and NGOs?
In this regard, with the general objective of exploring the concepts of globalization and commodification, especially intersecting perspectives, the essay specifically aims to address the following tasks: (1) to choose a place, institution, artefact, image or idea and consider the extent of its commodification and globalization; (2) to use relevant academic discourse to analyze the qualities of the chosen case to come to conclusions and insights; (3) to underpin one’s discussion with relevant theory and ensure balance in the essay by commenting on the positive and negative aspects of the impacts of both globalization and commodification; and (4) to include photographs of the chosen case to
Fast communication also helped in developing journalism, newspapers and news agencies. The developments in film, advertisement and radio ushered a new era in communication and mass culture. Radio as a propaganda tool was first utilized by former USSR and then all the nations of the world followed the suit.
The author points out that the evolution is one which was created as a result of technological and scientific advancement, communication needs and alterations in society which pointed to the need to have new forms and consistencies within society. The invention of television, according to this article, is then based on the belief that it was formatted specifically as a natural part of evolution in society to fulfill specific needs and desires by individuals.
However, communication being a complex social phenomenon relies on a number of related phenomena and processes, particularly history and traditions in communities or human groups, cultural determinants in a certain society, political context in which a community or group exists, yet, gender and ethnical variables that also play significant role in the processes of information exchange.
The different historical and ethical framework of each country is expressed through a specific concept, which reflects the country’s historical and social characteristics – as a member of the international community; culture has been introduced in order
For example many rivers are receding, half of the global wetlands have been eroded and freshwater fish have virtually become endangered species.1 It is hardly surprising that in more recent times there has a been heightened