g nuances of meaning that a sign evokes. A connotation is what the sign is being associated with. Whenever we ignore the connotations and assume that it is natural and unchangeable like the denotation, then we create myths. While studying semiotics; however one must consider that there is applied semiotic structures as for instance architecture, dress or cuisine. Any edifice is a refuge and a certain message (Hall, 1980:58).
Semiotics maybe applied to cultural studies to artifacts as literary texts, photographs, popular songs, food, road signs, advertisements, and clothing. Semiotics does not seek to find the importance of texts but to be conversant with the process through which they become meaningful and how they are differently being interpreted. Representation is the production of meaning, discourse and image (Hall, 1997:3). Looking at the advertisement “Istanbul European capital of culture”, there are several cultural aspects about Istanbul and the people of Istanbul that are brought out. In the advertisement, as far as imagery was concerned, there is the use of dressing, architecture, modes of transport and dancing. Starting with the code of dressing, it would not be as difficult for anyone conversant with the Middle East community to realize that the way of dressing represents them. Their clothes are made of silk just like the ones the Ottoman courtiers had. There is the use of veils and jewels by the women and men putting on hats and robs.
Considering the architecture on the advertisement, we see typical Middle East or Muslim architecture. Big, colorful palaces built in the Ottoman Empire style of houses have been the way to in the Middle East even in the ancient times. From the images, it would be rare to find someone mistaking Istanbul to a city in the U.S, because of the unique buildings. There is a lot of use of horses as a mode of transport, of course representing how long they have been