In addition, barrier protections have been a routine part of all health care institutions in reducing the spread of disease.
Riegelman (2010) define immunization as the introduction of antibodies/vaccine to strengthen the immune system and to prevent or control diseases (102). Immunizations are essential to the protection of the public because it prevent infection from bacterial and viral diseases, provide either short/long-term immunity, may effectively control outbreak, and can control 70-90% of substantial population with infections from contagious viruses. On the other hand, a number of disadvantages were also noted, among of which are: some diseases such as HIV/AIDS may not have effective vaccines, immunizations are rarely 100% effective particularly among the young and the old and can produce side effects such as allergic reactions, live vaccines may cause injury to fetus or diseases to those with reduced immunity, and immunizations through inactivated vaccine may not produce long-term immunity and thus requires follow-up vaccines/boosters.
Barrier protections also include isolation and quarantine. Isolation refers to the separation of the individuals with diseases from healthy population in order to prevent exposure (Riegelman, 2010, 102). Isolation and quarantine have the advantage of controlling the spread of a number of infections and serve as the basic strategies for controlling communicable diseases such as HIV/AIDS, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis. However, isolation and quarantine may possibly break confidentiality of contacts’ information due to identification of individuals with diseases and follow-up of contacts. It may also lead to public recognition and social stigma placed upon affected individuals.
Barrier protections such as immunizations, isolation, and quarantine encompass treatment of those with disease and their contacts and are all essential comprehensive