The emergence of identities is linked to historical specificity; the conflicts that exist between identities can be traced to a given time. This proves that these differences are historical. Research shows that people invest in identity positions. In the representation of identity, Woodward insists that one should have a clear understanding between cultures and meaning (14). Representation involves practices and symbolic systems through which meanings are produced. Representation as a cultural process establishes individual and cultural identities. Systems of representation provide avenues for which individuals can position themselves. A good example that Woodward gives is the narratives of soap operas and the semiotics of advertising which he believes assist in the construction of gendered identities (14). If we link history to identities and representation, we consider the example of marketing promotions that Woodward looks at the promotion creates new identities at a given time. Advertising sells things and; therefore, it targets appealing to consumers and utilizes images, with which consumers can identify with, all practices that produce meaning involve relations of power, so in this case, politics plays the source of power in the aspect of representing identity in the advertising campaigns (Woodward, 1997:15). Inthorn looks at a wider European identity and its relation with the media. The media play a crucial role in the creation of identity. Advertisers are known to influence media coverage on political issues. This, therefore, affects the representation of identity. The press, in the case of Europe functions, to describe what Europe is about, the press promotes national identity, and this is achieved by referring to the past. The press also evokes a concept of taboo behaviour in European politics. The role of European politics is to promote the European identity (Inthorn, 2010:54). Hall and Du Gay argue that many studies have proven to equate cultural studies with the theory and politics of identity. They argue that the role of politics in to question the formation of identities and how they are taken up through the practices of representation. In a different perspective, it is argued that identities are produced within the play of powers, representation and difference. Hall illustrated that the formation of identity operates across the notion of difference. He examines the sassures linguistic and staturalistic approach of presentation. He argues that binary oppositions a marking difference is essential for producing meaning. He considers language as a system of signs to represent ideas and concepts. He concludes that there is no natural relationship between signs, and its signified meaning an example is the ideology that west does not mean anything without east. Is theories have been used in the development of the approach of semiotics, the other approach is the linguistic model which concentrates on cultural objects and practices are treated as signs conveying meaning through representation. Woodward also observed that cultural identities are constructed in relation to or differences from the others this construction usually appears in binary oppositions that are the concept of them and us. Let us consider representation and identity in advertising images. Schroeder and Zwick study how masculinity and interacts with consumption of imagery products, desires and
Reading Cultures: Politics of Representation Author: Institution: Reading Cultures: Politics of Representation We start the analysis with Woodward’s observation that representation of identity functions in symbolically classifying the world and the relationships within it (Woodward, 1997: 8)…
Words and Pictures across Cultures Name Professor Institution Course Date Words and Pictures across Cultures Orientalism has been a debate between different people and cultures over many years and one of the acclaimed writers in the field is renowned American author, Edward Wadie Said.
Chapter 2. Literature Review. 2.1 Functions of Media in Modern Western Societies. 2.2 Feminism, gender theory and language. 2.3 Power, discourse and identity. 2.4 Heterosexual, gay and lesbian identity and language. 2.5 Summary and application to British tabloid journalism.
In the early twentieth century the term nationality was often described based on the race or genetics therefore bringing the term nationality on the forefront of world history in terms of influence. Historically, this has changed as the nation-state has become the dominant social figure and this transition has been refered to as nationalism.
One of the natures of signs is that it has a wide range of meaning; some are easily straight forward while others are more allusive (Fiske, 1982:144). In studying signs, there are denotations and connotations. Denotations can be defined as the most literal and stable meaning of a sign while connotation can be defined as the association or more emotional, expressive and evaluating nuances of meaning that a sign evokes. A connotation is what the sign is being associated with. Whenever we ignore the connotations and assume that it is natural and unchangeable like the denotation, then we create myths.
The political rights of the representatives of the minority communities have been subdued. The European countries are democratic countries, and the notion of democracy protects the interests and rights of the local community. The principle of democracy echoes the voice and representation of the majority and minority communities.
The beliefs they practise, as well as how they practise those beliefs will be discussed throughout this essay in considerable depth. Their unfamiliar beliefs will also be compared to the beliefs and thoughts of our own culture.
2 The social life in Muslim Turkey contains a large number of different beliefs, customs, traditions, rites and ceremonies and stereotype attitudes in many fields.
te those beliefs and practices of the people of a cultural community since the scope of traditional cultural art is, to a great extent, restrained by the societal power factors, such as the state authority, various social organizations, and established dissident groups. Unlike
In studying signs, there are denotations and connotations. Denotations can be defined as the most literal and stable meaning of a sign while connotation can be defined as the association or more emotional, expressive and