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Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder - Research Paper Example

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The article highlights various studies that are being carried out to recognize the conditions and also the means adopted to deal with ADHD cases. Introduction Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder popularly called as ADHD, is a developmental, neurobiological state characterized by the existence of strict and persistent signs of inattentiveness, hyperactivity and impetuosity (American Psychiatric Association (APA), 1994). A child displaying symptoms of ADHD portray the high level of distraction, impulsive temperament and hyperactivity behavior. This is well documented between the age of 6 months to 7 years (APA, 1994). There is a behavior difference prevalent between the ADHD and normal individual. In case of ADHD individuals, a very short span of attention is observed, they are less attentive and distract very easily. They are therefore not able to focus on their work for a given length of time instead they display hyperactivity or disruptive temperament. The child also shows propensity of doing work without thinking which may fetch danger for the child. Moreover such children get frustrated very easily and show short temperament, such children lack concentration in the class and therefore show poor academic performance. In sports they display impatience and cannot wait for their turn and never go with the rules rather they have their own ways. Such children are more prone to the injuries and accidents (ADHD). ADHD individuals display co-morbid issues as around 30-50% individuals have oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) as well as they display conduct disorder (CD) as well as 20-30% ADHD cases show signs of anxiety while 11 to 22% ADHD individuals display bipolar disorder (Biederman, 1991). Neuro-imaging of ADHD cases display diminished prefrontal cortex thereby they lack in executing prefrontal functions and therefore they have reduced operational memory (Hill, 2002). Schachar et al, (2000) defined ADHD as "a disorder of dysregulation of thoughts and actions associated with poor inhibitory control. The incidence of ADHD is more prevalent in boys as compared to girls. It shows the sign of inheritance as it runs in family (ADHD). ADHD individuals display incapability in their reading, writing and mathematical skills. On the other hand if ADHD is associated with CD then the condition may worsen further as the issues are not confined to academics, instead they are associated with offending or disposition of criminal temperament (Daley, 2010) . According to Daley et al, (2010), there exists a correlation between academic performance as well as executive functioning. Children with ADHD along with poor EFs display poor performance in their academics in contrast to the children with ADHD and adequate executive functioning. When the results were compared with controls then poor EF does not found any co-relation with the academic accomplishments, suggesting that prevailing symptoms of ADHD and essential cognitive shortfalls and not co-morbid behavior predicaments are responsible for academic mutilation. Academic intervention suggests that academic performance does not appear to be associated to co-morbid behavior ...Show more

Summary

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)" Abstract Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder or ADHD deals with impulsiveness in children. However, research reveals that it can potentially co-occur with numerous other behaviour related disarrays. The characteristic features involve distraction, hand movement in a specific manner, jiggling in chair, giving contradictory proclamation, a habit of reversing letters in words, these conditions could be related with environmental quandary, unfriendly atmosphere, learning disorders, issues of anxiety…
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