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In Edwin’s view, it was wrong to use information collected from men to arrive at conclusions about the entire society without seeking the views of both women and men. He argued that it was this hierarchy in society that had rendered women voiceless over the years. The main proponent of the theory is Cheris Kramarae. The Muted Group Theory has been used for purposes of communication studies. Cheris Kramarae, once a professor in charge of Women’s Studies, worked with various lecturers from around the world. According to Cheris Kramarae, the ideas contained in the Muted Group Theory state that men created communication as a tool for taking advantage of women (Kramarae, 1981). The theory requires women to play strictly within the confines of the language developed by man and are therefore not allowed to have their own way of expressing their feelings and thoughts. Muted group theory also provides an explanation as to why there are groups in society that have a voice while some are mute. In her 1974 study, Chen's Kramarae focused on how the characters in cartoons are quite deceptive. She noted that the female cartoon characters were portrayed as being apologetic and emotional. They are also depicted as flowery and vague in the way they communicate. Words such as pretty and nice are used to refer to these characters. It is from this initial study that she found evidence that supported the muted group theory (Griffin, 1997, p. 459). LITERATURE REVIEW The first book that I will analyze is the book written by Belenky titled Women's ways of knowing: the development of self, voice and mind. In this book, the author analyzes the way women’s feelings are not adequately served. The author argues that this is probably the reason why women face challenges when trying to climb the corporate ladder (Belenky, 1986). The author also states that in many cultures women are ignored and often discouraged from joining male dominated industries even when they have the knowledge required. What was disappointing about this book was that the Muted Group theory was not mentioned and I had to critically analyze it in order to gather relevant information out of it. The author also used several theorists to explain herself which made the book even more complicated to analyze. The second book I will review is a book by Griffen titled the ‘Proprietors of language' and argues that language was developed by men and that women were not consulted in its development. In this case men are referred to as the dominate group while women, the mute group (Griffen, 2004). Muted Group theory is used to explain the reason why some groups in the society; in this case women are silent. According to Ardener, this group that is muted can be studied from a gendered outlook. Females behave differently from males because they are constructed in a different way. It is these same differences that Ardener argues qualify women to be classified among the muted groups and undervalued in society. The aspect of this book that I did not like was that the chapters were not directly related to the Muted Group theory either. The issues discussed were however quite interesting despite not being topical. It was however ...Show more


Literature Review - Sports illustrated A Reflection of Societies Acceptance of The Muted Group Theory Savanah Alexander CTAC 354 Communication Theories Professor K. Rassenhasmussen 16 Feb 2013 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND This literature review seeks to study the Muted Group Theory and identify how the swimsuit video advertisement entitled “Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Las Vegas” is an example of how society accepts this theory…
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Literature review
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