The continuous development in the economic sector has rejuvenated China as an economic powerhouse and made Chinese society accredited with varied new values and diverse trends while forcing the government to adopt some kind of limited decentralization policies and political reforms (Chen, 2007). These trends of liberalization have however been accompanied with constant official efforts to strengthen the political authority over the media and the society (Chen, 2007). Since 1949 till the 1980’s almost all Chinese media was controlled by the state. The inception of private media only occurred with the begining of economic reforms in China. The private media bodies that are functioning within the boundaries of Public Republic of China are no longer required to follow the journalistic guidelines set by the state with the exception of Macao and Hong Kong. Even today the state run media enjoy a significant market share in the industry of mass media. However governmental regulating agencies like General Administration of Press and Publications still enforce strict guidelines on tabooed subjects projected in the media. Regardless of such strict control of state on the mass media and its censorship policies, the Chinese media is experiencing increasing commercialization characterized with growing competition and an emerging trend towards investigative journalism. Subjects of sports, entertainment and finance are less prone to state scrutiny and face little regulation from the authorities (Bennett, 2013). The controls on the media were relaxed on a limited scale in the 1980’s but were once again subjugated in the lieu of Tiananmen Square protest 1989. Attempts to loosen controls were made in the late 90’s under Jiang Zemin but were once again taken back due to the growing influence of internet (Southerland, 2007). Over the last ten years, the reforms made in order to promote decentralization of power by the Chinese Communist Party have initiated autonomy in the field of Media. This has led to the formation of local and regional media bodies. This step has decentralized the party control that is the fact that as far a media agency is from important cities more freedom of functioning can be enjoyed by them. The political authority of China now relies on regulatory mechanisms rather than direct control or over sight on the media agencies. There is a potential rise in the kinds of media coverage that were considered acceptable since the 1990’s. Previously the Ministry of Radio, Film and Television used to monitor any news or program prior to its broadcasting on CCTV (Nahan, 2008)but now the programs are reviewed after they have been aired on television. The year 2008 marked 30 years for China’s reforms and opening up to the rest of the world and the Olympics. China was the second country to host Olympics and brought about 10 billion viewings in only 16 days and 2700 hours of sports coverage leading towards a viewership rate was 59% (International Media Support, the Danish National Commission for UNESCO and Copenhagen Business School, 2008). China also reported that it would stay open to the international media even after the Olympics. The government proposed a series of set of laws at the end of 2006, which advocated that journalists from abroad could carry out interviews in China as long as the consent was provided by the intended interviewees (China View, 2008).
The Chinese media after 30 years of reform and open door In the year 1978, China experienced reforms and opened up it gateways for the world around which lead to a considerable change in contemporary Chinese journalism in the last 30 years or so (Li & Liu, 2009)…
However, the primary impetus to ensuring regionalism and integration of East Asia calls for cooperation between the states in a broader range of areas which would in turn greatly simplify the realization of a more comprehensive, cooperative, and stable regional community.
While countries like Japan and china started growing at a rapid speed, some countries took their own time in improving. Modern economy started prevailing in almost all these countries. China and Japan opted only at a later stage. ASEAN members including Malaysia and Indonesia preferred the modern economy and worked towards it from 1970's.(Kirby 1967).
After the WWII, North Korea established a socialist economy and a self reliance policy in foreign policy and national defense (Worldatlas, n.d.). The country underwent demoralization, economic mismanagement and misplaced resource allocation but
the dependency theory while others tried to use the third way method in explaining the cultural value systems of the Asian countries as as a major cause (Wallerstein 1982, Berger 1988, Kahn 1979). However, the core idea can be classified into two major approaches: The
This has led to the growth of pop idols such as J-pop. Growth in popular idols accompanies the growth in the Japanese television and the film industry. Japanese popular culture is essential in understanding the evolving attitudes of the Japanese
Although it might appear as if an ancient Chinese text that discusses tactics and strategy of warfare may neither be relevant nor useful to individuals within the current era, the fact of the matter is that this particular text is still referenced and relied
There are five key concepts of democracy (Linz, & Stepan, 1997). These include:
Democracy embraces the recognition of the fact that people are worth and ought to be dignified equally. As a matter of fact, democracy dictates that every person’s
12 pages (3000 words)Essay
Hire a pro to write a paper under your requirements!
Win a special DISCOUNT!
Put in your e-mail and click the button with your lucky finger
Apply my DISCOUNT
Got a tricky question? Receive an answer from students like you!Try us!
Let us find you an essay for FREE
Contact us via Live Chat, call us at +16312120006or send an email to email@example.com