The decisions of these arbitration tribunals are always binding and final, and it is important to note that in international arbitration of disputes, the parties are allowed to modify the terms of the dispute resolution in line with their needs. The question that then rises is how international arbitration works in international businesses. In most international business agreements, there are dispute resolution clauses that state how all disputes within the agreement can be referred to for arbitration and includes such modalities such as the language of the arbitration and the governing law of contract. Other agreements pertaining to international arbitration may also have a mandatory requirement foe a pre-arbitration mediation and whether the international arbitration will be ad hoc or institutional, the mode of selection of the arbitrators, limitations and whether there is the right of appeal from the arbitration award. International arbitration as used in the solution of international commercial disputes is often a viable method but has a few disadvantages in challenging and enforcement of the award owing to the great influence of local courts in the states. The conventions that govern international arbitrations such as the New York Convention amongst others do not help the situation, as they are mostly silent on challenging and enforcement of awards (Kronke 2010, p.255). This causes hurdles in enforcement of awards that parties may refuse due to arguments based on sovereignty and public policy. International Arbitration in International Businesses It is important to note that arbitration is always adjudicative, binding and consensual in nature (Mann and Roberts 2013, p.60). Adjudicative nature of arbitration infers that the arbitrator must not have a conflict of interest in the matter at hand and must not communicate to any party in the dispute independently. The arbitrator must also treat all the parties to the dispute fairly and equally as well as permit the parties to respond to each other’s case judicially and adhere to the agreement between the parties and the scope of their mandate. The arbitration must be binding in the sense that the courts are able to transform an arbitrator’s award into a valid judgment that is executionable unless an adjudicative principle has been breached, there is a public policy ground not to do so or there is a pending appeal. It should also be consensual in that only parties who have agreed to participate in the arbitration are bound by the arbitrator’s award and third parties cannot be affected, while the agreement to arbitrate must show the location, language and the governing law as well as the rules of arbitration. The arbitration agreement can be in a series of clauses in the commercial agreement between the parties concerned even before a dispute arises, or an agreement as to the scope, rules and other matters such as the presentation of documentary or oral evidence. International arbitration in international businesses is important as they help in the resolution of businesses across borders or businesses situated in multiple jurisdictions. The degree of risk that is posed on businesses operating internationally require that businesses adopt
Importance of International Arbitration in International Business Introduction International arbitration is one of the most important means of solving international business rows especially amongst investors and the countries they invest in the current economic and legal world…
‘(Collins English Dictionary, 2011)’2. However, in business contexts, litigation is defined as an action or charge brought in a court of law in order to enforce a particular and specific right. Litigation is also defined as a process by which the case is taken to a court.
Accordingly, an agreement is considered an arbitration agreement when it constitute an arbitration clause or has provided arbitration as the ultimate method of dispute resolution1. Arbitration does not arise automatically as a possible method for resolving the dispute unlike seeking courts assistance.
In the response to the difficulties caused by conflicts in laws and contract disputes, international commercial arbitration devised a way in which such conflicts could be avoided and disputes solved easily out of court. This paper will assess whether the principle of privity of contract undermines the application and functioning of ICA in that it causes unnecessary disputes that have little to do with the actual contract and more to do with the method of arbitration, the conduct of arbitrations and the recognition of awards and orders.
As a result, this has created a negative effect whereby foreign investors are reluctant to invest in Saudi Arabia. In addition, other Middle Eastern countries have gained the trust and confidence of foreign investors, so there is a need to assess the prevailing arbitration laws in the Kingdom.
.......................... 2 Overview of the sources of international law..................................................... 2 Treaties............................................................................................................... 3 International Customs.
In 2011, FDI outflows from emerging markets increased by 25%.2 A majority of these states have implemented reforms liberalising capital markets to increase capital inflows from FDIs and to appeal to foreign investors.3 However, there is a developing trend indicating some degree of institutional weakness in terms of political and legal risks and concerns about market efficiency4.
According to the paper with the persistent decline the United States economy, international business will result to crucial improvement in the economy. International business increased the rate of exchange with international nations and this reduces the changes of economic failure because of increased exchange of products. International trade provides innovations and concepts, US benefits from these concepts.
About 120 nations have consented to the” New York Convention “which compels contracting nations to implement arbitration awards and accords subject to limited and specified exemptions.
UK is a party to the” New York Convention on the