In his writings, he deals with the concept of just actions on the part of government officials and defines just actions as actions undertaken for the good of the majority. In dealing with the concept of governmental freedom and boundaries, he conceived of the concept of utilitarianism whereby the actions are men are judge based on their ability to bring good to the vast majority. In his conception of freedom, he viewed men as dynamic beings-beings capable of making autonomous decisions and assessing whether those decisions will benefit the vast majority. He embodied the notion that in benefiting the majority, a minority might be harmed. He expressed the notion that the harm brought to the minority is simply a casualty of undertaking the correct action.
Simone de Beauvoir however expresses a diametrically opposing point of view on freedom. In "The Ethics of Ambiguity" she exhibits the viewpoint that of freedom as an absolute entity-one that should not be bounded. She is the embodiment of the existentialist philosophy which dictates that humans are totally free to make choices and are to be held responsible for the resultant of those choices. Essentially she does not see freedom as one which should be bounded by the constraints of laws and governance of a society. ...Show more