StudentShare solutions
Triangle menu


Nobody downloaded yet

Extract of sample

11). The British Crime Survey (BCS) estimated 2,708,000 violent incidents occurred against adults in England and Wales (Dodd et al 2004, p. 67), which, overall, is a decrease of 36% in crime since 1995 (p. 67). However, in 2004 BCS report also noted that violent crime has stabilized (p. 67)). The police recorded 1,109,017 violent incidents, which is a 12% increase since 2002/2003, partly attributed to the implementation of the NCRS (p. 67), increases in the reporting of crime by the general public, increases in police activity, and improvements in recording crime (p. 69)
For more than a quarter of a century, from 1969 to 1996, burglary and theft accounted consistently for about half of all recordable offences in England and Wales. The peak was reached in 1992 when they made up 52 percent of recorded crime. By 2004-5 the four types of theft accounted collectively 30% of all crime, according to British Crime Survey report (Home Office 2007).
During the time period under study, there was a steady increase in robberies with two peaks followed by sharp declines occurring in 1996 and 2001-02, the latter of which may be partly attributed to the implantation of the NCRS. Ninety percent of the robberies were of personal property, while the balance was robberies of businesses (Dodd et al., 2004, p. 79). The BCS also recorded increases in the robbery rates between 1981 and its 2003-04 interviews, with a peak in 1999. Following this peak, rates declined significantly (-32%). In the Crime in England and Wales 2003-04 report, the conclusion was that for this time period, robbery numbers were too low to provide reliable estimates, although the report did note that there was a general decline for the last decade (p. 79).
Clear-Up Rates
One of the measures most frequently used by the police and evaluators is the clear-up rate. However, the meaning of 'clear-up' is far from clear. The standard conception of the clear-up rate is the proportion of offences recorded by the police that are 'detected' each year. For most crimes this 'rate' or, rather, the proportion of known offences detected, has been falling steadily over the past few decades.
Variations in Clear-Up Rates
If the clear-up rate is, however, to be used as a gauge of effectiveness, some consideration needs to be given to the number of incidents recorded, their seriousness and the number of officers employed over time. Thus it may be that the number of crimes cleared up per officer may increase at a time when the overall clear-up rate is declining. However, the main difficulty in using clear-up rates as a measure of effectives is that the term 'clear-up' can cover a number of processes and variations, including: 1) if a person has been charged, summonsed or cautioned for the offence; 2) if the offence has been admitted and has been or could be taken into consideration by the court; and 3) if there is sufficient evidence to charge a person but the case is not proceeded with (Bottomley and Coleman 1995). Thus crime can in fact be 'cleared up' without any direct police 'detection' work being undertaken, and ...Show more


In determining program impact on the incidence of particular types of crimes, according to Davies et al 1998, obtaining quantitative data using an experimental or strong quasi-experimental design would seem the most fruitful method to use. Crime increased markedly in England and Wales throughout the years of a Conservative government (1979-1997) and discourses on crime both then and since has been dominated by the need for ever tougher and punitive sanctions (Simmons et al 2003, p…
Author : garrettdoyle
Read Text Preview
Save Your Time for More Important Things
Let us write or edit the essay on your topic
with a personal 20% discount.
Grab the best paper

Check these samples - they also fit your topic

Assignment 2
The article by Hoeve et al. indicated a predictor of desisting behavior, that is frequency of halting delinquent behavior, as being authoritative parenting style. Self-reports of authoritarian parents about ongoing delinquent behavior indicated that minor persisting of these behaviors was present in their adolescent youths.
2 pages (500 words) Essay
The labeling theory also believes that while an individual may commit one criminal act, his or her tendency to commit additional acts comes from society's label. This theory has been very popular in the last half century and has had an important impact on criminology in both positive and negative ways.
6 pages (1500 words) Essay
2000). Principal methods accepted for crime studies are qualitative and quantitative methods. Casual Process Observations (CPOs) are the basics of the qualitative analysis, whereas Data Set
2 pages (500 words) Essay
Wales throughout the years of a Conservative government (1979-1997) and discourses on crime both then and since has been dominated by the need for ever tougher and punitive sanctions (Simmons et al 2003, p. 22)1. Britain have experienced sharp rises in registered crimes over the
6 pages (1500 words) Essay
However, despite policies and measures, crime continued to rise. For this reason a new group of left realists had emerged in sociology discourse as a response to the right realism. Two of the members had been John Lea and Jock
6 pages (1500 words) Essay
So, the theory concludes, that if an object is not properly guarded and if the reward correlates with the risk then a crime is likely to happen. Crime does not happen because of a great number of wicked people or the appearance of some super-predators in the area. The crime
3 pages (750 words) Essay
Assignment 2
Self-reports of authoritarian parents about ongoing delinquent behavior indicated that minor persisting of these behaviors was present in their adolescent youths. However, the study results from Wald Testing methodology and actual juvenile
2 pages (500 words) Essay
Criminologists have adopted diverse ways of incorporating social and behavioral sciences in the study of criminology. Social philosophers developed varied theories that explain the reasons or cause for increased crimes in the society.
4 pages (1000 words) Essay
The monopolistic systems of policing have paved the way to pluralised systems, largely fragmented across networks of security governance (McCrie, 2006). This interconnection of the policing function is understood as a broad process of social change linked with numerous areas of
14 pages (3500 words) Essay
ASSIGNMENT 2: Media Report
inational companies which have a huge financial base to segment the market, attract customer loyalty towards their products and services, and position their products and services strategically in the market (Newcomb, 2014). Electronics industry is one of the sectors that have
6 pages (1500 words) Essay
Hire a pro to write
a paper under your requirements!
Win a special DISCOUNT!
Put in your e-mail and click the button with your lucky finger
Your email
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment
Contact Us