Over the years this has included tax authorities, local or regional authorities, independent authorities responsible for public order and safety and public authorities providing public health services.
The decision in Case 41/74 Van Duyn v Home Office  ER 1337,  1 CMLR 1 was based on the findings in Case 26/62 NV Algemene Transportatioin Expeditie Onderneming van Gend en Loos v Nederlandse Administratie der Belastingen  ECR 1;  CMLR 105.
The van Gend en Loos case dealt with Treaties, where it was said that Treaty provisions can be immediately enforced in national courts by individual applicants if the provisions were clear, negative, unconditional, containing no reservation on the part of the Member State and not dependent on any national implementing measure.
Van Duyn made it clear that this was also true of Directives. If Directives are binding then it is possible that they will be relied upon in national courts, but clearly each case will turn on its own facts.
Therefore since Z works for a Council this can be construed as an emanation ...Show more