The Development of Prisons Abstract The following article reflects on the extreme living environment prevalent within the jails & prisons of America & other western nations on the break of the 19th century. The article follows the journey of the reforms made through the phrases of time & what sort of positive dividends it rewarded…
Jails & houses of rectifications were created in the American colonies soon after the revolution. The jail was designed originally for the detention of persons awaiting their trial. It soon came to be utilized as a venue for punishment after conviction. As in Great Britain, this alteration brought in increasing opposition to the use of corporal & capital punishments, & hence it was a modification of the existing system for implementing the corrective reaction to law breaking. Convicted drunkards & vagrants, particularly, were barred behind these institutions. The house of correction began as an institution for vagrants, but was not differentiable in its basic approach from the medieval jails & confinements. Oppression, vulgarity, & anarchy constituted the basic plenary of the European & American jail infrastructure. The amendment of the disciplinary reaction in the jails came at a very slow pace. As a first hand example, the number of persons confined in prisons or correctional homes after a conviction was relatively less throughout the domain of the 18th century, & in the city of New York it was not until 1788, that a wholesome law was ratified for the use of prisons & workhouses as venues of reprimand. Thus the situation & the discipline of prisons had originated from a pretty precarious position (Sutherland, Cressey, Duckenbill, 1992, p464). Over the centuries the law and standards have brought about several changes in the prisons, their structure and operations. Early dungeons By modern day standards & merits, the conditions & interiors of the jails in early days were absolutely horrific. There was lawlessness, indiscipline, & inhumane conditions both in & out of the cells. The prisoners spent their time in association, without any sort of labour, depending on charity for their entire existence. There was virtually no procedure or system to treat unwell prisoners & inmates. Religious services were also not provided for these socially prohibited trashes. Harmful alcohol, unhygienic atmosphere, & beastly conditions prevailed behind the walls of these forbidden kingdoms. The prisons in England were in a precarious position, yet there was not much ado about it. Humans living worse than animals were the general traits upon which the metaphor of the word ‘prison’ was based in the 19th century. The prisons & confinements in USA lingered in the same tottering position. The culmination of the American Revolution did not bring any sort of positive change amidst the jails & prisons. The Walnut street jail in Philadelphia was one of the most ill maintained jails of the time (Sutherland, Cressey & Luckenbill, 1992, p ...
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“The Development of Prisons Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.net/law/44916-the-development-of-prisons.
This has resulted in gender-based issues relating to corrections employment that needs examined in the research. In addition, there has been a significant increase in the number of women who are being incarcerated in today’s prisons and this too has affected and served to change the face of the environment for those employed in prisons corrections facilities.
Prisons can be privatized to solve this problem of insolvency that is the dilemma of federal owned associations. Some of the legislators oppose the idea of private prisons as they believe that they cost almost the same as federal prisons. However, the trend towards private prisons is rapidly increasing by every passing day.
While few would argue with that contention, others do contend that the primary purpose of the prison should be rehabilitate offenders and get them ready to be positive contributors and law-abiding citizens in society upon their release. Naturally, there are some prisoners who will never be released back into society, but for the millions of others, many in society would like to see them get prepared for a second chance.
Recidivism, which refers to the re-offending or repeat of antisocial, aggressive, violence, or criminal behavior, is a key problem in the society which not only affects families, communities, but also public safety. The high rates of recidivism in the society demonstrate the challenges encountered in transition from prison life back to the society.
Such institution assists in providing solitary confining to inmates, reducing their level of contact with the rest of the society and other programs. The institution assists in increasing control over inmates known to be violent, assaultive and most likely to promote disturbance within the general prison population (National Institute of Corrections, 1997).
In private prisons, that tasks which were previously assigned for public institutions, such as the reformation of the prisoners as well as the ensuring of public safety has created a situation where it is the private institutions which have taken them up.
This is further aggravated by the fact that those taken to prison are those members of the society who have been seen as not to be compatible with the outside free world and require some form of punishment and rehabilitation in order to conform.