Raymund Paudes uses the term Chicano to refer to people of Mexican ancestry who have resided permanently in the United States for a prolonged period. Chicanos can be native born citizens or Mexican born immigrants who have adapted to life in the US. According to Helicon publishing, Chicano theatre is the Mexican American community theatre movement, notably the Teatro or Campesino founded by Luis Valdez, the father of Chicano theater in California in 1965 who was also responsible for the first festival of Chicano theatre in 1970Chicano theatre focuses on themes of identity, discrimination, culture and history, with an emphasis on validating the Mexican American experience or Chicano culture in the United States. It is often associated with the social and cultural claims of the Chicano movement. Chicanos use their theatre as a vehicle to express their feelings and represent themselves, and is often a voice of social critique and protest. Other important themes include the experience of migration, and the situation of living between two languages. Chicano literature may be written in either English or Spanish, or even in a combination of the two "Spanglish" .Politically too Chicano culture has focused on the question of the border and the ways in which Chicanos straddle or cross that border. The United Farm Workers of America (UFW) is a labor union that evolved in 1962 from unions founded by Csar Chvez, Philip Vera Cruz, Dolores Huerta, and Larry Itliong. This union was initially a workers' rights organization that helped workers get unemployment insurance. It changed almost overnight to that of a union of farmworkers., It was the result of the National Farm Workers Association's (NFWA) striking in support of the mostly Filipino farm workers of the Agricultural Workers Organizing Committee (AWOC) led by Larry Itliong in Delano, California who had initially organized a grape strike on September 8, 1965. Aware of their common goals and methods and recognizing the strengths of the coalition formation, the NFWA and the AWOC, jointly formed the United Farm Workers Organizing Committee on August 22, 1966. "This organization eventually became the United Farm Workers and launched a boycott of table grapes that, after five years of struggle, finally won a contract with the major grape growers in California." Thousands of lettuce workers were brought by the union in the Salinas and Imperial Valleys and orange workers in Florida employed by subsidiaries of Coca- Cola.
The principles of non-violence exhorted by Mahatma Gandhi and Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr were openly adopted by the union.
The next major campaign launched in the orange fields in 1973 when a deal between the International Brotherhood of Teamsters and the growers nearly destroyed it. The Teamsters were endowed with the right to represent the workers who had been members of the UFW by contracts that the growers signed.
The retail grocery industry faced an onslaught of strikes, lawsuits and boycotts, including secondary boycotts launched by the UFW. The union then found itself struggling to regain lost members in the lettuce field which it however never fully recovered in terms of strength, due to incompetent management of the hiring halls it had established that favored some workers over others.
A number of UFW members were killed on the picket line owing to violent battles in the fields. The violence led the state in 1975 to find a solution for these adversities by founding an administrative agency, the Agricultural Labor Relations Board, to enforce a law modeled on the National Labor Relations Act that