However, as a result of the gigantic growth in the internet industry and the forecasted exhaustion of the available addresses, a better IP version (ipv6) that uses 128-bit in 1995 was developed.
The addresses of the IP are binary numbers, but are mainly displayed in notations that human-readable like 220.127.116.11 for the IPv4 and for IPv6 as 2001:db8:0:1234:0:567:8:1 and mainly stored as text files. The use of IPv4 is that it limits the addressing space to about 2^32 mainly unique addresses. IPv4 also reserves addresses for particular purposes like multicast addresses (~270 million addresses) or private networks (~18 million addresses). The representation of IPv4 is mainly in dot-decimal notations consisting of four decimal numerics, ranging from 0 to 255 and separated by dots like 172.16.254.1. Every part of the four numerics symbolizes a collection of 8 bits attached to the address. In technical writings, various addresses of the IPv4 can be presented in octal, hexadecimal, or binary representations.
During the early phases of IP development, network administrators clustered the IP addresses to two parts, which were the host number and network number portion. The most crucial eight bits in the address was the network number, while the rest were denoted as host identifier or rest field and were associated with hosting numbering in a network. Due to the growth in technology and internet, the method was outdated and researchers introduced the architecture of the classy network. The design of the classful network allowed for the design of the fine-grained sub network and an increased number of the individual network assignments. The starting three bits of the most crucial octet in the IP address was stated to be a class. There were three classes defined A, B, and C addressing of the universal unicast. Depending on the derived class, the network identification is based on the octet boundary sections associated