Commutative law can be represented using logic gates as follows:
According to the Associative law of multiplication, when ANDing two or more variables, the order in which the variables are arranged makes no difference. This law can be illustrated using AND gates as shown below:
According to this law, ORing two or more variables followed by ANDing the outcome with a single variable is equal to ANDing the single variable with each one of the two variables followed by ORing the products. This law also illustrates the process of factorization as shown below:
DeMorgan proposed two theories that are useful part of Boolean algebra. In practice, DeMorgans theorems gives mathematical confirmation of the equivalence of NAND and the negative OR gates and the equivalence of the NOR and the negative AND gates. One of the DeMorgans theories is stated as follows: The complement of the product of any two variables is equivalent to the sum of the complements of the two variables.
A four-variable Karnaugh map consists of sixteen cells, as shown in the figure below. The binary digits A and B are at the left side while the values C and D are across the top. The value of any given cell is binary values of A and B combined with the values of C and D. For instance, the cell in the upper ...
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(Programmable Logic Controllers Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 Words)
“Programmable Logic Controllers Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.net/logic-programming/748502-programmable-logic-controllers.
Binary Coded Decimal (BCD) was a forerunner to modern protocols required for today's high speed applications made possible by fibre optic technology. Through the use of a few simple logic functions and innovative manipulation of large amounts of data, the PLC forms the backbone of the modern process control system.
When the network is slow, it is not uncommon to blame it on the health of the software (IBM, 2009). Malware infection on the programmable logic controllers should first be checked. If there is also enough resources and time, it would be better to revise the existing control system by making the program sensitive enough to all possible scenarios but simple enough as to not take too much time on processing (Siemens, 2009).
We could see this process control applications in almost all engineering products including car steering system and ship autopilot, and in space control system as well.
Automatic control systems were originated two thousand years back. The first feedback control system was the ancient water clock of Ktesibios in Alexandria in third century B.C.
The PLC has the ability to be programmed for individualized tasks and is a versatile alternative to older hardwired relay arrangements. Its adaptability, size, and low cost have made the implementation of larger control systems possible.
Typical value is identified as 0 to 5V. 
[b]Example of what a signal value might represent: Let us consider measurement of level in a tank. The magnitude of current can be used as a reference to know the depth. For instance,
rol industrial machines and processes; it is a control device that has a programmable microprocessor which is programmed using a specialized computer language. A modern PLC is usually programmed in Ladder Logic, Basic and C; the program is initially written on a computer and
s’ and clients’ suggestions after a certain corporation realizes that there are customers in need of a given product, thus, creating the demand facet. NPI can also be triggered by technological changes within a given area and competitions from other investors dealing with
Nonetheless, the greatest advantage of utilizing a PLC is the capacity to change and duplicate the operation or procedure while gathering and conveying indispensable data.
Another point of interest of a PLC framework is
The latch instruction which makes it possible for the PLC to remain on when the on button is pressed is called SET, also known as the output latch. The OUT (output latch), also called the RES (reset), is used to put the PLC off. The SET
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