The smart city idea is, thus, borne out of this. The smart city, present and future, promises economic growth, as well as, competitiveness presented in highly educated talent, seamless electronic connections and high-tech industries. Other terms used for the same include “cyber Ville”, “electronic communities”, and “intelligent cities” among others (EmbeddedComputingDesign).
Singh identified eight macro-economic aspects which define a smart city namely: smart energy, smart building, smart governance, mobility, smart infrastructure, smart technology, healthcare and a smart citizen (Singh). Close to this is another definition of a city as being smart when investments in social and human capital and transport and ICT (modern) communication infrastructure catalyze reliable economic development, high quality of life, alongside a wise management of natural resources with participatory action and engagement (Deakin 65-83). The universality in definitions is achieved in the convention of micro and macroeconomic factors.
The shift in paradigm to smart cities stems from socio-economic factors such as, economic restructuring, climate change, pressures on the public finances, ageing populations, as well as, entertainment, and online retail. Thus, creating and sustaining conditions suitable for learning and innovation is an important prerequisite in the existence of smart cities. In the same vein, for European countries to achieve Europe’s 2020 goals of climate change, innovation, employment, employment, energy, and poverty reduction, progress in the smart city would be welcome (Singh).
To any interested party, certain questions stand out. For example, how much urban investment will be responsible to achieve in the future? What are the factors to consider? What are their sustainability or future plans? How smart is smart for the