StudentShare solutions
Triangle menu
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Why China wants RMB currency undervalued - Essay Example

Nobody downloaded yet

Extract of sample
Why China wants RMB currency undervalued

China has adopted a policy of intervention to control the appreciation of its currency, the renminbi (RMB), against the dollar and other currencies. This policy measure is heavily criticized by most of its trading partners, especially the United States (Morrison and Marc 1).China's policy of pegging its currency against the U.S. dollar has resulted in severe devaluation of RMB. This undervaluation gives RMB an unfair advantage over competitors in exports. Critics argue that this policy has resulted in China's huge current account surplus, and global trading imbalance (Chen and Mai 4).Some analysts argue that China makes a deliberate effort to manipulate its currency in order to get an unfair trade advantage over other trading partners (Morrison and Marc 1).U.S. claims that RMB's undervaluation is leading to U.S. manufacturing job loss and trade deficit. On the other hand, China strongly condemns such allegations and asserts that international pressure is a form of protectionism and interference in China's domestic economic policy. This research paper explores the reasons behind Chinese currency's undervaluation and implications of appreciating it. Renminbi (RMB) is the official name of Chinese currency, and it is divided in the Yuan units, RMB and Yuan are used interchangeably. China has been under extreme criticism and international political pressure to revalue its currency. The pressure is primarily led by the United States of America who asserts that competitive undervaluation of the Chinese RMB and other Asian currencies have significant influences on the U.S. economy (Bergsten). According to Cline and Williamson's estimate, RMB's 25-40 appreciation would lead to reduction of annual U.S. current account deficit by $100 billion to $150 billion. On the other hand, proponents believe that currency appreciation is the solution to China's own problems as it can work as a tool to curb high inflation, lower import price, and dampen the demand for exports(Goldstein and Lardy 2006; Bergsten 2010; Tyers et al. 2008; Tung and Baker 2004 qtd. in Yang, Wei, and Simla 1). Nevertheless, there are widespread concerns about a major RMB appreciation. Within China, it is believed that a major currency appreciation would lead to slow economic growth and leave adverse employment influences on labor-intensive export sectors (Xu et al. 2011; Tang 2011; Lin 2011; Duan 2011 qtd. in Yang, Wei, and Simla 1). Background on China's Currency Policy Recent empirical studies reveal that undervalued currency leads to faster economic growth. It is because exports rate grow relatively faster than import rates. Therefore, the producing country generates more foreign exchange and enhances its production capacity (Abola qtd. in Joyce). When a country's currency is undervalued, exports grow more than imports because it will provide cheaper goods as compared to their competing trading countries (Joyce). In past, currency valuation has been used by countries who intend to promote their exports, such as, Japan and South Korea, and now China (Diokno qtd. in Joyce). Until 1994, China practiced a dual exchange rate system. It included an official fixed exchange rate system used by government, and comparatively market-based exchange rate system used by exporters and importers in "swap markets". China restricted access to foreign exchange in order to limit imports which resulted in large black market for foreign exchange.There was significant difference in the two exchange rates. In 1993, official exchange rate with dollar was 5.77 Yuan while 8.70 Yuan in the swap markets. United States criticized China's dual exchange rat ...Show more
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
  • CHICAGO
(“Why China wants RMB currency undervalued Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words”, n.d.)
Retrieved from https://studentshare.net/macro-microeconomics/8669-why-china-wants-rmb-currency-undervalued
(Why China Wants RMB Currency Undervalued Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 Words)
https://studentshare.net/macro-microeconomics/8669-why-china-wants-rmb-currency-undervalued.
“Why China Wants RMB Currency Undervalued Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.net/macro-microeconomics/8669-why-china-wants-rmb-currency-undervalued.
  • Cited: 0 times

Summary

China's has been under contentious debate over the issues and implications of undervaluation of its currency, the Renminbi (RMB). Regardless of continuous international pressures to appreciate RMB, Chinese government strongly resisted large change at a time (Yang, Wei, and Simla v)…
Why China wants RMB currency undervalued
Read Text Preview
Save Your Time for More Important Things
Let us write or edit the essay on your topic
"Why China wants RMB currency undervalued"
with a personal 20% discount.
Grab the best paper

Check these samples - they also fit your topic

Wants vs. Needs
Wants and needs have many connotations and are used in different contexts. Nevertheless, a need, specifically a “human need”, generally refers to “something that a human being must have in order to live a recognizably human life” (Garrett, “Needs, Wants, Interests, Motives”); a want, or more accurately “the object of a want”, refers to “something that one desires to have, or whether or not one needs it or has interest in it in preceding sense” (Garrett, “Needs, Wants, Interests, Motives”).
3 pages (750 words) Essay
Will China revalue its currencyCauses of devaluation Mechanisms Implications
Running Head: ABBREVIATED TITLE OF YOUR CHOICE (all caps) <Student Name> <Name and Section # of course> <Instructor Name> <Date> Will China Revalue its Currency Introduction China has revalued its currency at many occasions since the beginning of economic reforms in 1979.</div> <div class="info o"> <div class="l"> <span class="number_pages">5 pages</span><span class="number_words"> (1250 words)</span> <span class="number_words">Essay</span> </div> </div> </div> <div class="related_post-bl" data-rel-document-id="276879"> <a class="title" href="/business/276879-international-currency" rel="bookmark" title="International Currency essay">International Currency</a> <div class="description"> government debt (Zeng, Nielsen 2007). Less dramatic, but also worrisome, are declines against the currencies in major industrialized nations such as Australia, China, and Japan. The world currently undermines the importance of the dollar depreciation over the other currencies.</div> <div class="info o"> <div class="l"> <span class="number_pages">20 pages</span><span class="number_words"> (5000 words)</span> <span class="number_words">Essay</span> </div> </div> </div> <div class="related_post-bl" data-rel-document-id="289847"> <a class="title" href="/business/289847-currency-hedging" rel="bookmark" title="Currency Hedging essay">Currency Hedging</a> <div class="description"> This literature review would examine the theoretical and conceptual constructs of currency hedging strategies and their relevance or irrelevance to all firms in a highly competitive and risk prone money market. In the first instance currency hedging practices have their relative individual significance vis--vis non-currency investment opportunities and net returns on such investment vehicles (Zarin, & Zimmerman, 2006).</div> <div class="info o"> <div class="l"> <span class="number_pages">22 pages</span><span class="number_words"> (5500 words)</span> <span class="number_words">Essay</span> </div> </div> </div> <div class="related_post-bl" data-rel-document-id="350249"> <a class="title" href="/miscellaneous/350249-the-effects-of-revaluation-chinas-currency-to-the-us-and-china-economy" rel="bookmark" title="The effects of revaluation Chinas currency to the us and China economy essay">The effects of revaluation Chinas currency to the us and China economy</a> <div class="description">economy. Other than the U.S., there are also other key players (the likes of Japan and E.U.) that are pressuring the Chinese government to raise the value of their currency in order to solve the trade imbalance between the Chinese and foreign products.</div> <div class="info o"> <div class="l"> <span class="number_pages">20 pages</span><span class="number_words"> (5000 words)</span> <span class="number_words">Essay</span> </div> </div> </div> <div class="related_post-bl" data-rel-document-id="392581"> <a class="title" href="/miscellaneous/392581-what-everybody-wants" rel="bookmark" title="What everybody wants essay">What everybody wants</a> <div class="description">To support this statement he gives an example of Al Capone that if anyone was brought up in a similar environment as him and was provided the same opportunities as he was, that person would have also achieved a similar</div> <div class="info o"> <div class="l"> <span class="number_pages">2 pages</span><span class="number_words"> (500 words)</span> <span class="number_words">Essay</span> </div> </div> </div> <div class="related_post-bl" data-rel-document-id="410758"> <a class="title" href="/miscellaneous/410758-is-chinese-currency-reminbi-undervalued" rel="bookmark" title="Is Chinese currency (Reminbi) Undervalued essay">Is Chinese currency (Reminbi) Undervalued</a> <div class="description">changes are the basic activities involve in the economic setting and these are what build the nation’s economic potential at present and in the days to come. Let us try to take a look at monetary exchange. China is under pressure to evaluate its Renminbi (RMB) for there is a</div> <div class="info o"> <div class="l"> <span class="number_pages">5 pages</span><span class="number_words"> (1250 words)</span> <span class="number_words">Essay</span> </div> </div> </div> <div class="related_post-bl" data-rel-document-id="529791"> <a class="title" href="/macro-microeconomics/529791-currency-management" rel="bookmark" title="Currency Management essay">Currency Management</a> <div class="description">Among the notable economic decisions made by both domestic and international economies are dollarization and the formation of monetary unions (Douma & Schreuder, 2008). These two are uniquely different in relation to the purposes they</div> <div class="info o"> <div class="l"> <span class="number_pages">1 pages</span><span class="number_words"> (250 words)</span> <span class="number_words">Essay</span> </div> </div> </div> <div class="related_post-bl" data-rel-document-id="538257"> <a class="title" href="/macro-microeconomics/538257-us-currency" rel="bookmark" title="U.S. Currency essay">U.S. Currency</a> <div class="description">One should believe that it is a good thing that the other countries are making use of the US Currency. This has helped it to take the lead within the different nations of the world and made it stand in a league of its own. The Japanese Yen and the</div> <div class="info o"> <div class="l"> <span class="number_pages">1 pages</span><span class="number_words"> (250 words)</span> <span class="number_words">Essay</span> </div> </div> </div> <div class="related_post-bl" data-rel-document-id="716576"> <a class="title" href="/macro-microeconomics/716576-is-the-chinese-currency-undervalued" rel="bookmark" title="Is the Chinese Currency Undervalued essay">Is the Chinese Currency Undervalued</a> <div class="description">rnment, for instance, has repeatedly raised the issue, noting in one policy pronouncement that the countrys exchange rate is a source of concern and proceeded on warning the world against and only stopped short of calling the country a currency manipulator (Rajagopalan &</div> <div class="info o"> <div class="l"> <span class="number_pages">5 pages</span><span class="number_words"> (1250 words)</span> <span class="number_words">Research Paper</span> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="order9"> <div class="container"> <div class="row"> <div class="essay_help-banner"> <div class="banner_content"> <span>Got a tricky question? <span class="orange_text">Receive an answer</span> from students like you!</span> <span class="btn-essay_help t uppercase c_p" onclick="location.href='/student-help';">Try us!</span> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="leave-popup"> <input type="hidden" name="document-id" value="8669"> <div id="modal" class="fade modal" role="dialog"> <div class="modal-dialog modal-md"> <div class="modal-content"> <div class="modal-body"> <div id = "modal-content"></div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="popup_search_document" class="fade modal" role="dialog"> <div class="modal-dialog modal-md"> <div class="modal-content"> <div class="modal-body"> <div id = "modal-content"></div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="popup_copy" class="fade modal" role="dialog"> <div class="modal-dialog modal-md"> <div class="modal-content"> <div class="modal-body"> <div id = "modal-content"></div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class = "order10"> <div class = "ads_reclam_right"> <!-- Start AdSense adaptive block --> <ins class="adsbygoogle" style="display:block" data-ad-client="ca-pub-3392533416137538" data-ad-slot="4842044335" data-ad-format="auto"></ins> <script> (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); </script> <!-- End AdSense adaptive block --></div> </div> <div class = "order7"> <div class = "container"> <div class = "row"> <div class = "comment_document"> <div class = "title uppercase">Comments (0)</div> <div class = "o" data-comment = "container"> <div class = "mock-comment"> <div class = "mock-panel"> <div class = "mce-widget mce-btn mce-disabled"><button><i class = "mce-ico mce-i-undo"></i></button></div> <div class = "mce-widget mce-btn mce-disabled"><button><i class = "mce-ico mce-i-redo"></i></button></div> <div class = "mce-widget mce-btn mce-disabled"><button><i class = "mce-ico mce-i-bold"></i></button></div> <div class = "mce-widget mce-btn mce-disabled"><button><i class = "mce-ico mce-i-italic"></i></button></div> <div class = "mce-widget mce-btn mce-disabled"><button><i class = "mce-ico mce-i-underline"></i></button></div> <div class = "mce-widget mce-btn mce-disabled"><button><i class = "mce-ico mce-i-alignleft"></i></button></div> <div class = "mce-widget mce-btn mce-disabled"><button><i class = "mce-ico mce-i-aligncenter"></i></button></div> <div class = "mce-widget mce-btn mce-disabled"><button><i class = "mce-ico mce-i-alignright"></i></button></div> <div class = "mce-widget mce-btn mce-disabled"><button><i class = "mce-ico mce-i-alignjustify"></i></button></div> <div class = "mce-widget mce-btn mce-disabled"><button><i class = "mce-ico mce-i-bullist"></i></button></div> <div class = "mce-widget mce-btn mce-disabled"><button><i class = "mce-ico mce-i-numlist"></i></button></div> <div class = "mce-widget mce-btn mce-disabled"><button><i class = "mce-ico mce-i-outdent"></i></button></div> <div class = "mce-widget mce-btn mce-disabled"><button><i class = "mce-ico mce-i-indent"></i></button></div> </div> <div class = "container"> <div class = "row"> <div class = "mock-textarea" data-comment = "render-form" data-href = "/comment/render?documentId=8669"> <span class="text-right text-lg-right">Click to create a comment</span> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </section> <!-- Start Adsense Include Script --> <script async src="//pagead2.googlesyndication.com/pagead/js/adsbygoogle.js"></script> <!-- End Adsense Include Script --> <div class="leave-popup" id="leave-popup"> </div> </div> <section class = "find_papers_bl"> <div class = "container"> <div class = "row"> <div class = "col-md-12"> <div class = "title">Let us find you another Essay on topic Why China wants RMB currency undervalued for <strong>FREE!</strong></div> </div> <div id = "form_find_papers"> <form id="footer_form" method="post"> <input type="hidden" name="_csrf" value="qVn8h3SmZW_zYOl2A6i2jggZw7G6ZqAbgOZIcrfweIebCKmwDt9XGJkL2kZm-4P5eE-ZwvZX923OkhEVmrs93g=="> <div class = "col-md-3 col-sm-12"> <div class="form-group field-customwriting-title required"> <input type="text" id="customwriting-title" class="form-control" name="CustomWriting[title]" placeholder="Essay title" aria-required="true"> <div class="help-block"></div> </div> </div> <div class = "col-md-3 col-sm-12"> <div class="form-group field-customwriting-type required"> <select id="customwriting-type" class="type-work" name="CustomWriting[type]" aria-required="true"> <option value="">Select type...</option> <option value="Assignment">Assignment</option> <option value="Essay">Essay</option> <option value="Case Study">Case Study</option> <option value="Research Paper">Research Paper</option> <option value="Coursework">Coursework</option> <option value="Term Paper">Term Paper</option> <option value="Book Report/Review">Book Report/Review</option> <option value="Research Proposal">Research Proposal</option> <option value="Admission/Application Essay">Admission/Application Essay</option> <option value="Literature review">Literature review</option> <option value="Personal Statement">Personal Statement</option> <option value="Lab Report">Lab Report</option> <option value="Movie Review">Movie Review</option> <option value="Dissertation">Dissertation</option> <option value="Article">Article</option> <option value="Annotated Bibliography">Annotated Bibliography</option> <option value="Thesis">Thesis</option> <option value="Outline">Outline</option> <option value="Scholarship Essay">Scholarship Essay</option> <option value="Thesis Proposal">Thesis Proposal</option> <option value="Statistics Project">Statistics Project</option> <option value="PowerPoint Presentation">PowerPoint Presentation</option> <option value="Speech or Presentation">Speech or Presentation</option> <option value="Math Problem">Math Problem</option> </select> <div class="help-block"></div> </div> </div> <div class = "col-md-3 col-sm-12"> <div class="form-group field-customwriting-email required"> <input type="text" id="customwriting-email" class="form-control" name="CustomWriting[email]" placeholder="Your Email Address" aria-required="true"> <div class="help-block"></div> </div> </div> <div class="col-md-3 col-sm-12"> <button type = "submit" class = "btn_send_me" onclick = "ga('send', 'event', 'requestform', 'push')">Send me Essays</button> </div> <div class="form-group field-customwriting-submit"> <input type="hidden" name="CustomWriting[submit]" value="0"><input type="checkbox" id="customwriting-submit" class="submit-fld" name="CustomWriting[submit]" value="1" style="display: none"> </div> </form> </div> </div> </div> </section> <footer> <div class="container"> <div class = "row"> <div class = "col-md-3 col-sm-12"> <img class = "logo_footer" src = "/img/logo/StudentShare_logo_footer.svg" /> <div class = "hidden_bl"> <div class = "copyright">Copyright © 2014-2018 StudentShare.net</div> <ul class = "menu_logo"> <li><!-- DMCA block start --> <a href="http://www.dmca.com/Protection/Status.aspx?ID=1d6c6fbc-0823-4e3b-bb60-112d8e9373d8" title="DMCA.com Protection Status" class="dmca-badge" rel="nofollow noopener" target="_blank"> <img class = "i_dmca" src="/img/logo/i_dmca.png" alt="DMCA.com Protection Status"> </a> <script src="//images.dmca.com/Badges/DMCABadgeHelper.min.js"></script> <!-- DMCA block end --></li> <li><img class = "i_paypal" src = "/img/logo/i_paypal.svg" /></li> <li><img class = "i_mastercard" src = "/img/logo/i_mastercard.svg" /></li> <li><img class = "i_visa" src = "/img/logo/i_visa.svg" /></li> </ul> </div> </div> <div class = "col-md-3 col-sm-12"> <div class = "line_bl"></div> <div class = "contact_box"> <div class = "title_bl">Contact us: </div> <div class = "phone_bl">+16312120006</div> <div class = "email_bl">
support@studentshare.net</div> <a href = "/contact-us" class = "contact_us_now">Contact Us Now</a> <div class = "line_bl"></div> <div class = "title_bl">FREE Mobile Apps:</div> <ul class = "mob_apps o"> <li><a href = "https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/studentshare-net/id1271699119?mt=8&ign-mpt=uo%3D4" rel = "nofollow"><img class = "i_app_store" src = "/img/logo/i_app_store.png" /></a></li> <li><a href = "https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.studentshare.app" rel = "nofollow"><img class = "i_google_play" src = "/img/logo/i_google_play.png" /></a></li> </ul> </div> </div> <div class = "col-md-3 col-sm-12"> <div class = "line_bl"></div> <ul> <li><span onclick = "location.href='/about-us';">About StudentShare</span></li> <li><span onclick = "location.href='/testimonials';">Testimonials</span></li> <li><span onclick = "location.href='/faq';">FAQ</span></li> <li><span onclick = "location.href='/content';">Blog</span></li> <li><span onclick = "location.href='/free-essays';">Free Essays</span></li> <li><span onclick = "location.href='/papers';">New Essays</span></li> <li><span onclick = "location.href='/essays';">Essays</span></li> <li><span onclick = "location.href='/essays/newest-essay-topics';">The Newest Essay Topics</span></li> <li><span onclick = "location.href='/date';">Index samples by all dates</span></li> </ul> <div class = "line_bl"></div> </div> <div class = "col-md-3 col-sm-12"> <div class = "title_bl">Join us:</div> <ul class = "social_media"> <li><a class = "fb" href = "https://www.facebook.com/studentshare.net/" rel = "nofollow noopener" target = "_blank"></a></li> <li><a class = "tw" href = "https://twitter.com/mestudentshare" rel = "nofollow noopener" target = "_blank"></a></li> <li><a class = "g_plus" href = "https://plus.google.com/+StudentShare" rel = "nofollow noopener" target = "_blank"></a></li> </ul> <div class = "line_bl"></div> <div class = "copyright hidden-md hidden-lg">Copyright © 2014-2018 StudentShare.net</div> <ul class = "menu_logo hidden-md hidden-lg"> <!-- DMCA block start --> <a href="http://www.dmca.com/Protection/Status.aspx?ID=1d6c6fbc-0823-4e3b-bb60-112d8e9373d8" title="DMCA.com Protection Status" class="dmca-badge" rel="nofollow noopener" target="_blank"> <img class = "i_dmca" src="/img/logo/i_dmca.png" alt="DMCA.com Protection Status"> </a> <script src="//images.dmca.com/Badges/DMCABadgeHelper.min.js"></script> <!-- DMCA block end --> <li><img class = "i_paypal" src = "/img/logo/i_paypal.svg" /></li> <li><img class = "i_mastercard" src = "/img/logo/i_mastercard.svg" /></li> <li><img class = "i_visa" src = "/img/logo/i_visa.svg" /></li> </ul> <div class="fb-page" data-href="https://www.facebook.com/studentshare.net" data-small-header="true" data-adapt-container-width="true" data-hide-cover="false" data-show-facepile="true" data-hide-cta="true"><blockquote cite="https://www.facebook.com/studentshare.net" class="fb-xfbml-parse-ignore"><a href="https://www.facebook.com/studentshare.net">StudentShare</a></blockquote></div> </div> </div> </div> </footer> <section class = "menu_footer_box"> <div class = "container"> <div class = "row"> <div class = "col-md-12"> <ul class = "menu_footer_box"> <li><span onclick = "location.href='/terms-and-conditions';">TERMS & CONDITIONS</span></li> <li><span onclick = "location.href='/privacy';">PRIVACY POLICY</span></li> <li><span onclick = "location.href='/cookies-policy';">COOKIES POLICY</span></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> </section> </section> <div data-popup = "mobile-apps"></div> <div data-popup = "gdpr"></div> <div data-popup = "system-message"></div> <script src="/assets/yiiAssets.js?v=1527065883"></script> <script src="/assets/all.js?v=1527065924" defer></script> <script src="/assets/document.js?v=1527065886" defer></script> <script src="/assets/docPopupCopy.js?v=1527065890" defer></script> <script src="/assets/docPopupSearch.js?v=1527065893" defer></script> <script src="/js/popups/mobile-apps.js?v=1527065665" defer></script> <script src="/assets/d82610f4/js/gdpr-cookies-notification.js?v=1527065875" defer></script> <script>$(document).ready(function(){ $('meta[name=csrf-token]').attr('content', 'qVn8h3SmZW_zYOl2A6i2jggZw7G6ZqAbgOZIcrfweIebCKmwDt9XGJkL2kZm-4P5eE-ZwvZX923OkhEVmrs93g=='); $('input[name=_csrf]').val('qVn8h3SmZW_zYOl2A6i2jggZw7G6ZqAbgOZIcrfweIebCKmwDt9XGJkL2kZm-4P5eE-ZwvZX923OkhEVmrs93g=='); });</script> <script>jQuery(function ($) { jQuery('#modal').modal({"show":false,"backdrop":"static","keyboard":false}); jQuery('#popup_search_document').modal({"show":false,"backdrop":"static","keyboard":false}); jQuery('#popup_copy').modal({"show":false,"backdrop":"static","keyboard":false}); jQuery('#interior_search-form').yiiActiveForm([], []); jQuery('#footer_form').yiiActiveForm([{"id":"customwriting-title","name":"title","container":".field-customwriting-title","input":"#customwriting-title","enableAjaxValidation":true,"validate":function (attribute, value, messages, deferred, $form) {yii.validation.required(value, messages, {"message":"Topic cannot be blank."});yii.validation.string(value, messages, {"message":"Title must be a string.","max":255,"tooLong":"The name is too long","skipOnEmpty":1});}},{"id":"customwriting-type","name":"type","container":".field-customwriting-type","input":"#customwriting-type","enableAjaxValidation":true,"validate":function (attribute, value, messages, deferred, $form) {yii.validation.required(value, messages, {"message":"Type cannot be blank."});}},{"id":"customwriting-email","name":"email","container":".field-customwriting-email","input":"#customwriting-email","enableAjaxValidation":true,"validate":function (attribute, value, messages, deferred, $form) {yii.validation.required(value, messages, {"message":"Email cannot be blank."});yii.validation.email(value, messages, {"pattern":/^[a-zA-Z0-9!#$%&'*+\/=?^_`{|}~-]+(?:\.[a-zA-Z0-9!#$%&'*+\/=?^_`{|}~-]+)*@(?:[a-zA-Z0-9](?:[a-zA-Z0-9-]*[a-zA-Z0-9])?\.)+[a-zA-Z0-9](?:[a-zA-Z0-9-]*[a-zA-Z0-9])?$/,"fullPattern":/^[^@]*<[a-zA-Z0-9!#$%&'*+\/=?^_`{|}~-]+(?:\.[a-zA-Z0-9!#$%&'*+\/=?^_`{|}~-]+)*@(?:[a-zA-Z0-9](?:[a-zA-Z0-9-]*[a-zA-Z0-9])?\.)+[a-zA-Z0-9](?:[a-zA-Z0-9-]*[a-zA-Z0-9])?>$/,"allowName":false,"message":"Email is not a valid email address.","enableIDN":false,"skipOnEmpty":1});}},{"id":"customwriting-submit","name":"submit","container":".field-customwriting-submit","input":"#customwriting-submit","enableAjaxValidation":true,"validate":function (attribute, value, messages, deferred, $form) {yii.validation.boolean(value, messages, {"trueValue":"1","falseValue":"0","message":"Submit must be either \"1\" or \"0\".","skipOnEmpty":1});}}], {"validateOnSubmit":false,"validationUrl":"\/custom-writing\/send"}); });</script> <script type="text/javascript">var ssaUrl = ('https:' == document.location.protocol ? 'https://' : 'http://') + 'pixel.sitescout.com/iap/3bb9f8333ef05427';new Image().src = ssaUrl;</script> </div> <div class="ui_container"></div> <div id="ui_container_main" class="ui_container_main"></div> <div id="ui_container_main_awesome_header" class="ui_container_main_awesome_header"></div> <div id="ui_container_interior" class="ui_container_main ui_container_interior"></div> <div id="ui_container_interior_awesome_header" class="ui_container_interior_awesome_header"></div> <a href = "/contact-us" class = "contact_us_chat"><span>Contact Us</span></a> </body> </html>