By taking the initiative of buying a pick-up truck and hiring two men for the heavy lifting work (Jones 233), Mary Ellen Sheets puts the expectancy theory into practice. She has a lot of expectations that she will succeed one day. According to expectancy theory, work motivation is enhanced by a belief that hard work is rewarding in that it facilitates high performance. We are told that “Her (Sheets) goal was, and remains, to bring a personal touch to an industry known for its uniformity and stressed-out customers” (Jones 234). Here, the goal-setting theory is applicable. The goal-setting theory postulates that employers should set goals for their jobs and use these goals in assessing the employees towards motivation. There is evidence for equity theory when Richard McBee, a teacher in Birmingham, is convinced to make his initial investment into the franchise business (Jones 234). The equity theory suggests that employees are motivated depending on their belief that they are likely to be rewarded fairly for a job well done.
In asking the workers to work in more shifts as a way of improving production (Jones 234), Klaus Kleinfeld applies the goal-setting theory. Following the hardships that followed after his father’s death, Kleinfeld had to start the business at an early age and had work hard in school in order to satisfy life needs (Jones 235). In this case, he applied Maslow’s needs hierarchy theory. Maslow’s needs hierarchy theory states that it is the urge of unsatisfied needs (physiological, psychological and security needs among others) that makes people work hard in order to meet them. Kleinfeld is described as a multitasker, ambitious, energetic, bright and aggressive (Jones 235). Here, there is an application of job enrichment theory. According to the job enrichment theory, one is motivated by the rewards of his or her job.