As the discussion outlines, major events have happened in the world where issues such as stampedes lead to death and injuries, or people suffocate due to congestion and commotion. This study will elaborate on effective crowd dynamics and event management by evaluating the Hajj, an annual Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca which attracts millions of people. In 2006, a stampede led to the death of over 340 people. Since the first events were organized about 2,000 years ago, they have been increasing in number by the day owing to the effect they have on our lives. They affect our political, environmental, economic, social, and cultural aspects. An event can have negative and positive impacts on the stakeholders and host communities, and that has made understanding of crowd dynamics and event management an important part of events. Today, events are increasingly researched and well documented to optimize their benefits and enhance their outcomes. One of the biggest challenges to crowd management is that minor factors such as bad behavior, substance abuse or criminal behavior can alter the agenda of an event and lead to unintended consequences. An event manager should therefore be equipped with skills to predict and come up with measures to mediate in the event that an unintended occurrence emerged before, during, and after an event. To elaborate how effective crowd management should be structured, the following study text will highlight the causes of fatalities and injuries at the 2006 Hajj where 340 people died and 1,000 injured. Following these, crowd reactions to situations and environments at public events will be discussed with regards to crowd management and control.
In January 2006, pilgrims at the Mecca Hajj pilgrimage event numbering millions went rushing through the city streets towards al-Jamarat, three large stone walls made of stone which represent the devil.