Since the organizational environment is a complex comprised of different activities and with the involvement of numerous sides in it, management theories help to make sense in that complexity. Management theories enable organization to realize its activities in order to determine what is relevant for the business, for instance, viable product and compliant workforce. Management theories have changed due to different historical and social times and places still addressing issues of relationships of particular times.
Thus, at the turn of 20th century, organizations were large and mostly industrialized whose activities were ongoing with routine tasks that were concentrated with the manufacturing of different products. Thus, in the U.S. there were highly prized scientific and technical organizations that included careful measurement and specification of their activities and outcomes. Management was mostly the same, espousing careful specification and measurement of all organizational tasks. Tasks were standardized and employees either rewarded or punished. This approach was developed by Frederick Taylor and known as scientific management theory and appeared to work well for organizations with mechanistic and routine activities. The scientific management theory was changed with the openings of Max Weber, who developed his bureaucratic theory focusing on dividing organizations into hierarchies and establishing strong lines of authority and control within them. Weber proposed that organizations should develop comprehensive and detailed standard of their operating procedures for all the routine tasks (McNamara, n.d.). Organizations run their activities using bureaucratic management principles across the world, managing their activities in formal processes and hierarchies that enable them to achieve stable structures and consistent results. However, bureaucratic principles are slow to