In a post-modern world, modeling the process of branding shifts from a lifeless engineering orientation to a living/organic orie

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A brand refers to a name, design or term that makes products or services of a company distinct in the market and from its competitors. An example of brand is coca cola which is used to distinguish a specific soft drink from others like Pepsi. The art of creating awareness of a product brand is what is known as branding.


This paper will seek to clarify how the post-modern world, modeling the process of branding has shifted from a lifeless engineering orientation to a living/organic orientation. Because of the desire to dominate markets, brands were managed by firms with the objective of maximizing profits through differentiating brands so as to command large market share. The application of brand in this aspect led to the equity approach to brand management. The main objective under this approach was maximizing profits. Branding was taken as a process of economic exchange of firm’s (producer of brand) brand for the customer’s money. This approach portrays branding as a well structured engineered process, whereby consumers provide measurable feedback through buying or failure to buy. This was evidenced by the use of geometric figures such as circles, triangles when modeling branding process (Keller, 2008). This branding process under equity approach begins with an extensive brand awareness campaign aimed at satisfying consumer’s functional needs by availing products and services. Consequently, after meeting functional needs a firm aims to satisfy emotional needs by associating its product or services with desirable image, design through marketing. ...
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