This paper will seek to clarify how the post-modern world, modeling the process of branding has shifted from a lifeless engineering orientation to a living/organic orientation. Because of the desire to dominate markets, brands were managed by firms with the objective of maximizing profits through differentiating brands so as to command large market share. The application of brand in this aspect led to the equity approach to brand management. The main objective under this approach was maximizing profits. Branding was taken as a process of economic exchange of firm’s (producer of brand) brand for the customer’s money. This approach portrays branding as a well structured engineered process, whereby consumers provide measurable feedback through buying or failure to buy. This was evidenced by the use of geometric figures such as circles, triangles when modeling branding process (Keller, 2008). This branding process under equity approach begins with an extensive brand awareness campaign aimed at satisfying consumer’s functional needs by availing products and services. Consequently, after meeting functional needs a firm aims to satisfy emotional needs by associating its product or services with desirable image, design through marketing. Thereafter, the firm differentiates its product from competition by creating a connection with customers, enhancing customer loyalty and thus achieving brand equity. Brand equity approach is viewed as incomplete due to its rational approach to branding process based on the scientific style of brand management. This rational approach leads to missing the ‘ontological reality” of brands and their “social ecology” (Grassl, pp. 313-360). Equity branding approach depicts brand as a lifeless controllable object which has no social capability with its consumers. In addition, the rational approach overshadows the individual aspects of a brand as it concentrates solely on creating an objective brand. Due to the failures of the equity approach to branding, a new concept of social approach to branding process emerged. This marked the transition of moving from the lifeless engineering orientation to a living/organic orientation of branding process (Stern, pp.216-223). This approach borrowed ideas from behavioral sciences like social-psychology and sociology to enhance branding process. Social-psychological approach to branding process aims at creating strong personal associations between customers and the brand thus building brand identity rather than brand equity. These brand and customer personal relationships are created on sincerity, competence and excitement dimensions. The Social-psychological approach depicts the branding process as the creation of harmony between customer and brand’s qualities. It attains this by use ethnically implied messages delivered through strategic marketing communications. Consequently, the approach reduces the function of culture and social relationships to means of communicating and enhancing brand identity. Therefore it does not cater for all social aspects of a brand. In the anthropological branding process approach, brands identity emanates from the culture rather than culture being means of communicating brand. Thus this approach portrays branding as an attempt by consumers to create their own identities from their own culture. The
A brand refers to a name, design or term that makes products or services of a company distinct in the market and from its competitors. An example of brand is coca cola which is used to distinguish a specific soft drink from others like Pepsi. The art of creating awareness of a product brand is what is known as branding…
Keeping this definition in view, and reinforcing it by inspiration drawn from characters in movies like “It’s a wonderful life” and “Miracle on 34th street”, this paper attempts at analyzing the lives of personalities like Simone Weil, Martin Luther King, and Mother Teresa, in order to examine the elements in their lives that make them secular saints.
Typically, the process involves a gene incorporation of a foreign gene to the target organism genome. The steps involved for creating genetically modified organism, using maize as an example are. 1. Isolation of the desired gene The very first step is identification of an existing organism exhibiting favourable traits; these traits are traced to the chromosomal characteristics of the known organism.
software), which satisfy some real human need. (EDP, 2006)
According to Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology, "Engineering design is the process of devising a system, component, or process to meet desired needs. It is a decision-making process (often iterative), in which the basic science and mathematics and engineering sciences are applied to convert resources optimally to meet a stated objective.
Post-modern business discourse is focused on the economic and social consequences of corporate practices.Transparency, though, must also take into account the subjective nature of gathering, analyzing and presenting data as published accounting information.
The design process is a decision making process that utilizes mathematics, basic science, graphics, material science, environmental knowledge, engineering and documentation towards developing a novel product and services (Seyyed, 2005; Daniel, 2003).
The need to the new product being developed must be analyzed before project development.
The postmodernists in turn reacted against the physicality and overt sensuality of Duncan and Graham. Copeland explains this reaction in terms of the feminism of the sixties and seventies, which "eyed the sexual revolution with considerable suspicion, fearful that it hadn't really liberated women, but had simply made them more available."
1. Premodern: Signs express a "natural law of value" reflecting a reality that appears to exist in its own right and on its own terms. Symbols map an order that is extrinsic to language and culture. Example: Holy Scripture (signifier) reveals God's Law (as object or referent).
That a tourist can stay or move freely anytime at their hearts desire or because they want to(Lausti par 1). Through tourism it spreads modernity to the society through various tourist attractions that provides direct access to the modern consciousness of the ' world's view' and trend ( MacCannell as cited in Tourist Production, Par 8).
Similarly, the global activism in quest of equal economic opportunities and social justice and fairness has led to free market economies bringing in a variety of consumer goods and allowing competition that lowers prices. This shared economic arena has led to organized society and significantly improved people’s lives.
4 pages (750 words)Essay
Get a custom paper written by a pro under your requirements!
Win a special DISCOUNT!
Put in your e-mail and click the button with your lucky finger
Apply my DISCOUNT
Got a tricky question? Receive an answer from students like you!Try us!
Didn't find an essay?
Contact us via Live Chat, call us at +16312120006or send an email to firstname.lastname@example.org