Learning through experience is the best method, according to Senge but organizations seldom experience the consequences of their decisions. Thus, adaptive learning or single-loop learning must be supported by generative learning or double-loop learning. When changes become necessary people respond to the change in an ad hoc manner. Without any planning change is executed. Whether single- or double-loop learning can occur only when an organization realizes that learning must occur.
An organization with the culture of learning and innovation would learn through every experience including international expansion. Wal-mart realized that its existing strategy did not fetch them the desired success and hence learned from its failures. They started learning through experience at different locations and this is known as reverse learning when firms are exposed to diverse knowledge inputs located in foreign markets. This to a large extent depends upon the export strategies adopted that influence the flow of knowledge and thereby affect innovative productivity. Sometimes the geographic location imposes constraints on acquiring knowledge and information. This can be overcome by hiring local employees and benefit from their expertise. However, Wal-mart did hire local people in Brazil but could not benefit as the focus was on achieving sales volume. They realized that they needed to hire professionals and they started doing so from competitors. This does not demonstrate a culture of learning and innovation. ...Show more