Literature Review: Governance defined in International literature: Kjaer (2004) defines governance as the setting, application and the enforcement of rules and it focuses on both the input side, the output side with a democratic procedure. Kjaer (2004) argues that the term governance was first differentiated from the term government because governance deals with the management of networks, which specializes in the delivery of services. Networks have been defined as the informal rules, which are governing the interactions between the State and the parties of interests (Kjaer 2004). The changing nature between the citizens and the local government: Almost 25 years ago in the developed countries, the citizen’s engagement with the local government was through electoral process. The representatives were elected through and were left to do their job. But since then there has been a decline in the trend of the local authority elections and has been shifted towards postal voting and amalgamation. The declining trend has led to the decrease trust in the local government (Russell 2004). As Russell (2004) suggests that the government has to encourage the participation in elections and recommended that there should be a focused intervention between the council size and the representation ratio in order to improve the voter turnout. Recent European study suggests that the citizens may be changing their preference in engagement towards the city council. The citizens are demanding better services from the local government and they are more willing than before to act and debate because the traditional democracy is declining (Russell 2004). The changing role of city council: The changing attitudes in the attitude of the citizens has also resulted in the roles and functioning of the city councils. The increase in the decentralization and the involvement from the citizen’s part is enhancing a strong emphasis of citizen decision making. In some countries like Brazil, the council delegates the local citizens the power in making decisions and in some parts the local community advice the local government in developing the budget. The gem model: Democratic Governance Community Engagement Organization Management The GEM model defines the interdependencies of the three components, the democratic governance, community engagement, and organization management. The ‘G’ stands for the democratic governance where the decision-making by elected councilors is based on the appreciation of the community issues and fulfills their needs by making the engagement process effective. The ‘E’ stands for civic engagement in which councilor adopt effective techniques in enabling the citizens to actively implement the public policies. The ‘M’ stands for organization management in which the public values the policies by the councils and the practices are then embedded in the community. If these three components maintain a balance then it will enhance the wellbeing of the community (Australian Local Government Association 1993). Methodology: The study has been based on the quantitative approach for collecting and analyzing the responses from the sample. The methodology works as a proper procedure for the researcher as it helps in mapping the activities of the research. The quantitative approach that has been used in this research helps in linking between the numeric data and the results that are assumed. Various statistical tools have been used in making
Research paper reporting results and conclusions [Supervisor’s name] Research paper reporting results and conclusions Introduction: The report entails to find out the satisfaction level of the people for the performance of their city councils…
They are more knowledgeable and sophisticated than the standard consumers. They are characterized as industrial, institutional, intermediate and government or public sector organizations. The industrial organizations are usually more risk averse and will buy more proven brand name products.
Population frame: The population of a survey consists of all the cases whose characteristics are studied by drawing a sample from the pollution. The population for this survey was the all the college students of the USA studying at different colleges in the USA.
To conclude the findings for the satisfaction level of the people with the council, the overall sample size was satisfied with the performance of the council in terms of core services, infrastructure, environment initiatives but they were highly dissatisfied with the council’s services when delivered on the phone or written contacts.
Asset is defined as anything of value that an organization owns, which usually arises due to past transactions (Finkler, 2010). Assets depreciate in value throughout their lifespan. At the end of a given period, an organization needs to adjust
According to the organisation activity statement for the year ending on 31st December of 2010 and 2011, telephone solicitation decreased from $28,000 to $25,000. This is contrary to the increment that was experienced in all other fund-raising activities.
Finkler (2010) adds that financial statements or reports fulfill various reasons that include determining ability of organizations to generate cash, as well as other resources. In addition, such financial