Whereas, collectivism can be defined as a working culture where people work in groups, form relationships among teams and prioritise the team’s goal before their individual goals (Aldulaimi & Zedan, 2012). It is in this context that marketing strategies are designed based on the culture of a country where the product is to be positioned. Hence, collectivism culture of a target market can be effective for marketing brand with names which are preferred more than the product itself. Consumers who consider other’s opinion to rely on a product can be influenced by the collective marketing strategy such as word of mouth. Whereas, in the individualistic culture, the consumers do not rely on other’s information, rather make choices according to their individual likings. Advertising, packaging and promotions can be some of the factors that influence a change from collectivism culture to individualism culture such as the quality of group of people using the product (Ekerete, 2001). For instance, the culture that the Chinese people follow to a large extent is collectivism and thus prefer to work in groups with due consideration to the team goal rather than their individual objectives (Hofstede, n.d.). This particular notion of the Chinese culture is observed to create a vast impact over their buying behaviour which can certainly influence mobile phone selling in the economy. The objective of the proposal will be to provide a brief description to the research process intended to be performed focused on the influence created by individualism and collectivism on the sales of mobile phones in China. The evaluations will be reviewed through reviewing literatures and relate them with the cultural marketing strategy adopted by mobile phone companies of China. 2.0. Literature Review 2.1. Individualism and Collectivism According to Markus & Kitayama (1991), individualism and collectivism can de differentiated within a group by the independence and interdependence style of working culture. In an individualistic culture, people work as independent targeting their individual goals whereas in collectivistic culture people are interdependent to each other within the group and aim to fulfil the group’s target ahead of their personal targets. As observed by Goncalo & Staw (2004), people in individualistic culture often describes themselves as ‘I’ when using any abstract but in the collectivistic culture people uses the abstract of ‘We’ to describe themselves. According to Bond & Smith (1996), a study demonstrated that Asians tend to conform more to their superiors than the Americans. Conformity prevails more to the collectivistic culture where people abide to certain guidelines that have been drawn by either the team or their superiors. However, in an individualistic culture, conformity is often treated as negative and only the organisations guidelines are being followed. As observed by Davidson & et. al. (1976), a person’s behaviour is closely linked with the group in collectivistic culture where the goal of the people should not be regarded as solely independent and different from others’, but to encourage the interests of the group. In disparity, the people’s identity in individualisti
Research Proposal - How Does Individualism-Collectivism Influence The Sales Of Mobile Phones? The Case of the People's Republic of China Table of Contents 1.0.Introduction 3 2.0.Literature Review 4 2.1.Individualism and Collectivism 4 2.2.Impact of Culture on Product Selling 5 2.3.Chinese Culture and Its Impact on Mobile Selling 7 3.0.Objectives 9 4.0.Research Methodology 10 5.0.Ethical Considerations 12 6.0.Limitations of the Study 13 References 15 19 Appendix: Questionnaire for the Survey 20 1.0…
Usually, this development is under division into three stages or generation. The first generation of mobile phone industry or ‘1G’ as its popularly known, is the era of analog telecommunication i.e. it used analog signals contrary to digital signal which came later.
Then in 1947, two young innovators, again from Bell Labs, proposed the cellular radio telephone network, with the theory of basing the area requiring the service to be divided into hexagonal cells (Rosewall, 2011) However, it was only in the late 80’s that the first commercial or hand held mobile phone was introduced to the world by Motorola, at a very high price range, targeting only the elite class.
G. Edward Griffin identified these two conflicting points of view as Individualism and Collectivism. Individualism sees that the individual has inherent rights granted to it in that the function of the state is not to maximize itself and assert control on the populace, but rather defend the basic rights that John Locke indentified: Life, Liberty, and Property.
It is pertinent that the design of the device go hand in hand with the materials that are used in its manufacture. There are a couple if things that determine which material will accompany the design of your device. One of such is the target consumers and their preference.
This viewpoint is in direct contrast to collectivism, which states that the opposite is true - that the importance of the community is high above that of the individual, and that the good of the community to which one belongs should be considered more important than one's personal needs or wishes.
In their opinion the power of society is limited by the inalienable, individual rights of man. (Individualism). On the other hand collectivism refers to a political or economic system in which the means of production and the distribution of goods and services are vested in the state (Collectivism).
model which states that social science is reduced to individual actions and decisions; and the methodological model which states that individuals should be left alone to determine their own financial and ethical matters for the future (the politics of individualism).
it used analog signals contrary to digital signal which came later. Contrary to digital standards, in 1G, the voice is merely modulated to frequency equal to or above 150 MHz (Organization for Economic Co-operation and
Organizational culture is the conduct of human beings in the setting of an organization and the meanings that people associated with this behaviour (Naylor, 1997, p. 282). Culture entails the vision, principles, rules, systems, traditions and philosophies that are linked to an organization.
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