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Motivation is a physiological force that regulates behaviour. It can be described as a stimulus that makes an individual act towards achieving a particular goal. According to Locke and Latham (2004) the concept of motivation pertains to internal factors that impel action and to the external factors that act as inducements to action.
Several scholars define motivation and present their own theories on how employees can be motivated to act. Motivation is the willingness to exert high level of effort toward organizational goals, conditioned by the effort's ability to satisfy some individual need (Ribbins, 1993 cited in Nasri and Charfeddine, 2012). It is a set of energetic forces that originate from within as well as beyond an individual’s being (Latham and Ernst, 2006). Most employees would work up to a certain point but to stretch beyond, they need some kind of stimuli. These stimuli are the motivating factors that induce an individual to exert extra effort. Thus an increase in motivation results in higher productivity and enhanced profits, which is the ultimate goal of any organization (Nasri and Charfeddine, 2012). Thus managers must have knowledge of the motivation theories which will help create a motivational atmosphere. People have different kinds of motivation and human motivation can vary not only in level but also in type. Accordingly, Mirabela-Constan?a and Maria-Madela (2011) elaborate on intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivations are those activities that give rise to inner satisfaction and are not based on expectations of some extrinsic gains such as monetary compensation. ...
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