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According to Aaker and Fournier (1995), brand personality is the “set of meanings constructed by an observer to describe the ‘inner’ characteristics of another person…that can be used to summarize complex behaviors and form expectations of future behaviors’ (p. 392).


392). The concept of brand personality eludes clear definition. Anandan (2009) provides what is probably the most practicable description: ‘Simply put, brand personality answers the question “What happens when the brand turns into a human being?” or “What happens when the brand comes alive?” (p. 139). Brand personality is also defined as “the set of human characteristics associated with a brand” (Asperin, 2007, p. 49). The concern of marketing practitioners as far as brand marketing is concerned is therefore how to personify a brand. Kumar (2009) links brand personality to self-concept, and it is self-expression, rather than emotion, that more significantly develops brand personality (p. 177-178). Brand personality is achieved by associating human characteristics that consumers commonly attribute to a brand. The characteristic may be in terms of demographic attributes (age, gender, status), lifestyle (activities, social class), culture (values, beliefs), and other personality traits. The brand may be associated with celebrities or historical figures, and several devices may be used such as animism, anthropomorphism, personification, and user imagery (Purkayastha, 2009). ...
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