Over the past decades, the way in which people are managed and motivated has become the primary field of interest in terms of assessing and improving organizational efficiency and marketability. The reason for such turn is evident: growing competitiveness in the market forces modern companies to increasingly rely on skilled and motivated personnel then on pure technologies and products.
The same principle is valid for non-business organisations: their success also depends on the management's ability to effectively implement the right solutions to improve motivation and enhance performance of employees.
Improving the effectiveness of marine management has recently turned into one of the most intensively debated topic in the UK. The debate mainly covers strategic issues concerning the effectiveness of the management of the marine environment to maximize sustainable benefits from our marine resources while ensuring proper protection. The effectiveness of marine management also depends greatly on the different values, expectations and other essential factors that people bring to their involvement with the sea. The statutory and institutional practices that apply to modern marine management in the UK and the relationship between government and community represent another aspect of the debate.
Involvement of many overlapping and sometimes conflicting agencies, processes, legislations, and other factors has forced the Government to propose introducing a Marine Management Organisation (MMO) to act as the key force for the integrated management of marine resources. Evidently, creation of such organisation is associated with numerous difficulties associated with legislation, planning, coordination, licensing, and many others. Unfortunately, these serious difficulties should not overshadow another very important aspect of such organisation's functioning, namely effective management of human resources.
The field of HRM is exceptionally complex and multilateral due to highly specific unpredictable nature of human being. As a result, there are many different theories and views on the nature, methods, and techniques of management found in the existing organisational literature. Although the type of organisation proposed by the Government is absolutely new the applicability of universal HRM concepts and theories to managing people even in such a specific organisation can hardly be questioned. However, the choice of correct practices from the general pool is the key factor to make the HRM element contribute effectively to the overall effectiveness and sustainability of the new organisation.
Since the emergence of organizational science in the late XIX - early XX century, the scholars have been sharing two dominant views on organizational culture. Apologists of one paradigm led by Frederick Taylor and Harrington Emerson (School of Scientific Management) believed that organizational culture was just one of the tools to ensure greater control over employees. Representatives of another approach such as Elton Mayo, Abraham Maslow, and Douglas McGregor (Human relations school) postulated that organizational culture was supposed to develop and motivate the employees without excessively rigid control (Schultz, 2002). Which of these approaches better fits the specifics of modern marine management is a very interesting question.
Abraham Maslow is one of the brightest representatives of humanistic ...
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The traditional way of personal management has given way to broad and collaborated way of knowledge sharing and problem solving. The emergence of the new approach which ensured greater degree of autonomy and independence can be attributed to the development of human psychology.
Knowing how children develop is important for assisting growth and learning, especially in the situation where the child is having difficulties. The way that children grow and learn can have a significant effect on their adult lives. Childhoods that are highly stressful or where many needs are not met can often result in the individual having problems in later life, such as the inability to interact well with others and the lack of interest and ability to learn.
Consequently,with emerging complexities, leadership became a pertinent issue. Thus, managerial theory was developed to help managers deal with the complexities around running an organization (Fleet & Peterson, 1994, p. 14). Management refers to the science or art of goal realization through people.
Therefore, by rating employees on the kinds of behavior it considers important, an organization encourages them to try hard in those areas and keeps skilled workers in the firm. In a 1998 survey of information technology workers, more than 80 percent of those who responded said that receiving feedback and having individual development plans were among the top factors that would make them less likely to leave their firms (Johnson, May 2001).
Once the biological need is fulfilled, the person will want to have safe environment and so on. Once one of the needs is fulfilled, its importance decreases and the desire for another need is activated. The other needs mentioned in the data are not directly related to the Maslow's hierarchy of needs but we can associate them within that hierarchy for example the transcendence need can be put into the self actualization need of the Maslow's hierarchy.
The second set of needs is related to safety and enables a society to function properly. The third layer of needs deals with the fulfillment of social needs, such as friendship, relationships, clubs, religious group, which creates a feeling of being wanted and accepted by members of a society.
This theory by Maslow was given in 1943 and was known as the ‘hierarchy of -needs’. It gave a general overview about the needs and wants of the individuals living in the world and how these needs and wants change through
The physiological needs represent the first level and include food, sleep, and water. The second level encompasses the safety needs such as order, security, and stability. The two levels are crucial for the physical survival of humans. Lauby (2005) argues that people
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