Other civilizations were characterized as having achieved the phase of development which Europe itself had already passed - for instance, hunting-gathering; farming; early civilization; feudalism; contemporary liberal-capitalism. Europe was the only part of the world which had reached the last phase. Hence, Europe was always believed to be responsible for technological, cultural and scientific progress which are the parts of the contemporary world. Moreover, scientific principles developed for better understanding the world were thought to have replaced certain religious doctrines with respect to the pure logic of European science. The degree to which the world science 'belongs' to Europe is still debated.
Furthermore, it would be important to refer to Marx (Smith, Sandholtz, 1995), who studied the issue carefully. In his opinion, European hadn't had any innate superiority, but he nonetheless claimed that European model of the world is followed in many other countries and is characterized as a pattern of scientific attitude towards the world in whole. Europe was the place, where the world 'policy' emerged - in particular, the Ancient Greece, where policy was a main model of governing. Other writers explored certain issues and aspects of European hegemony, for instance, the development of trade and the issue of imperialism. "By the late 19th Century the theory that European achievements arose from innate racial superiority became widespread: justifying slavery and other forms of political and economic exploitation, even being used to validate genocide" (Ginsberg and Smith, 2005, p.41).
Europe, where the phenomenon of policy emerged, is probably the conceptual political center of the world - this fact can be exemplified by a number of international organizations, which determine European foreign policy and influence each European country in pacrticular. Nowadays, European foreign policy is a subject of numerous discussions, since it seems controversial due to the number of organizations created in Europe over the last few decades. The greatest and most influential international political organization is European Union. The main values of European Union were clarified by Michael Emerson, who influenced the upgrade of European Constitutional Treaty. The treaty is directed to achieving a stronger position in the European Union with respect to the 'high' world politics. European Constitutional Treaty has already been ratified by twenty-five member states of the union.
According to the Constitutional Treaty, Emerson draws out the ten standards of European Union. The greatest values include the domination of democracy, rule of law and human rights; the 'four freedoms' (basic human freedoms) (Smith, Crowe, 2006). Furthermore, Emerson highlights the importance of social cohesion, the abhorrence of nationalism, multi-tier governance, stable economic growth, multiculturalism, multilateralism and secularity of governance (IGCC Policy Paper No. 52, 2000).