This paper discussed and analyzed several theories of motivation that are available to the manager. The lessons learned from the discussion and the analyses were then synthesized to determine the most effective method of motivation.
Analyzing the methods of motivating employees requires discussion on the theoretical foundations of employee motivation. Scientific research concerning management and motivation is a relatively new phenomenon in spite of the fact that management of people is as old as history. In the following discussion, the theoretical foundations of modern day motivational methods will be provided and the knowledge of these can provide us a measure of evaluating the effectiveness of motivational techniques.
There have been several attempts to provide a theory that would explain and capture the essence of how employees can be made to perform. In Deci et al (2005), it is stated that the first significant theory is the traditional Theory X attributed to Sigmund Freud. This thought considered people as lazy, irresponsible individuals who will work only if coerced, intimidated, punished or promised with a reward. In management, this is more termed as 'carrot and stick' style where managers would need to constantly police workers to 'motivate' them to work. (p. 13)
Mc-Gregor formulated the Theory Y and has principles that are in sharp contrast to the Theory X. In this line of thinking, the individuals are considered to be self disciplined and hungry for self and professional development. Motivation does not come by financial compensation alone but also in the feelings of competence when a work is successfully accomplished. The manager's job is to provide measures that can fulfil and address this innate desire for self-development.
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
The most celebrated theory regarding motivation today is that of Abraham Maslow with his work entitled "A Theory of Human Motivation". In this composition, Maslow argued that individuals have a hierarchy of needs which he depicted with a pyramid composed of five levels shown in Figure 1. The lower the level, the greater is its influence to a person's behaviour but is not necessarily the governing factor.
Figure 1: Maslow's Pyramid of Needs (Wikipedia Illustrated Online, 2009)
Physical needs are the foremost concern of every individual but these changes over time. Maslow considers human behaviour to be dominated by 'unsatisfied needs'. Individuals are considered to be a 'perpetually wanting animal' and will aspire for the next higher levels of needs once satisfied with his previous concerns. He will seek perfection and constantly develop himself. The manager's job is to determine the needs of the employees and be able to address them properly.
Maslow later added two levels namely aesthetic needs where people desire to create and experience balance and beauty in life and cognitive needs where employees desire to acquire knowledge.
Following Maslow's work, motivational factors should consider the following:
Physiological needs - Lack of adequate compensation and long working hours resulting to the degradation of an employee's physical health. This renders him ineffective in making decisions and accomplishing tasks.
Safety needs - Employees need to feel secure and protected from arbitrary exercise of authority as
Corporate culture is defined by the Washington Corporate Leadership Council (2009) as the set of beliefs and value systems existing within a company and developed through time. It can either be based on the mission statement or it can be implicitly understood…
If the business operates in a multi-national environment that has a diverse type of personnel, it is especially important to understand what drives attitudes and cultural values in order to be successful. Businesses that operate where teams are necessary are even more in need of a unified culture where everyone in the organisation works together to achieve harmony and goal attainment.
The ability of every organization differs in terms of its distinct attributes and working styles which defines its culture and value for the particular firm. Similarly, the impact of organization culture varies from employees that have different nature and mindsets.
Corporate Culture. Corporate culture is defined as the values, beliefs, attitudes and behaviours of employees in a business. Each organization usually has unique standards, and policies that define it and that distinguish it from other organizations. The norms that define the way an organization runs its operations are also defined as corporate culture.
This research paper tries to find out how Wholefoods use its sustainable and ethical business practices in order to motivate its employees. This paper is divided into four sections, i.e. introduction, literature review, methodology, discussions and findings and conclusions.
The boundary of the culture of an organization rests on its beliefs, values and assumptions which get embedded in the organization over time, which Schein (1985) also refereed to as a residue of success.
goals and modes of operating and the effectiveness with which they are achieved.
Businesses that operate where teams are necessary are even more in need of a unified culture where everyone in the organisation works together to achieve harmony and goal attainment. The goal of the essay is to identify what parts of culture are
Organizational culture is a group of norms of behaviors and shared values that make those norms work. It stipulates what employees, managers, and all other stakeholders should do, at what time, with whom, where, and how. Organizational
This paper shall look at factors that motivate employees to work hard, and it shall explore the various motivational theories. According to the economist’s utility model of individual behavior, an employee shall adopt that behavior that he expects to give him the greatest utility. Each employee shall demonstrate a behavior, which shall have both positive and negative consequences.
In terms of employee numbers, Google has over 50000 employees around the globe. Their numbers seem to be rising as the company acquires new markets and venture. With a market of over several millions in the globe, the company needs to utilize motivated workforce. The first aspect of Google motivating its employees concerns culture management.
7 pages (1750 words)Essay
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