The notion of positive reinforcement as a behavior modification technique has a long history and a wide variety of applications. People teach their dogs to sit and roll over by rewarding them with food when they perform the desired behavior correctly. It has also been applied in classrooms where students have learning disabilities…
As an initial matter, it is important to define what is meant by reinforcement. The basic concept involves a change in an organism's surroundings that happens regularly when the organism responds in a given manner and which is known to increase the probability that the given response will be performed (Reinforcement, 2005: np). These surrounding variables are controlled or managed in order to study the effects of a particular type of reinforcement. It is not the organism which is being reinforced; instead it is the behavior which is the subject of the reinforcement, also known as operant conditioning (Michaels, 1975: 13). An early and authoritative statement defining reinforcement posited that,
example, food, water, sexual contact - to the situation. These we call positive reinforcers. Others consist of removing something - for example, a loud noise, a very bright light, extreme cold or heat, or electric shock - from the situation. These we call negative reinforcers. In both cases the effect of reinforcement is the same - the probability of response is increased. (Skinner, 1953: 73).
The most significant question is how to modify behavior by using reinforcement properly. ...
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This is because man remains to be a complex self-actualizing individual as compared to social being. Behavioral approach defines to managers clearly that individuals drive organisation’s productivity. Individuals who are skilled and committed applying appropriate work methods determine the success of an organization.
Secondly, motivational function involves pairing specific challenging goals and the way the activity is being performed. Usually, three sources of feedback are found. Firstly, others such as peers, supervisors, subordinates, friends and family members can become the source of feedback.
The technique of behavior modification is used to apply the principles of reinforcement or other learning principles to help a person adapt to the environment. This technique is helpful to change the behaviors of people. This method is based on the principles propagated by Skinner known as applied behavior analysis.
For example, by sampling novel foods and learning to avoid noxious food types, a cosmopolitan species like the rat can acquire an appropriate diet in a wide range of environments. Mechanisms of phenotypic plasticity may also have fitness costs. By sampling novel foods, the rat incurs risks that could be avoided by an animal with rigid genetically specified food preferences (Wright, 1995).
It helps the college achieve sustainability.
a. When organizations embrace sustainability as a core value they create competitive advantage and a wealth of good will. (Rooney). Sustainability is the basis on which an academic institution survives even during the most challenging and turbulent times.
st important aspect is that there must be a proper fit between the size of an organization, its technology and the requirements of its environment and this perspective is referred to as the Contingency Theory. Moreover, the importance of communicating knowledge effectively
I almost stay awake all nights in the week and not just weekends. Sometimes, I stay awake to watch movies. At other times, I hand out with my friends.
I plan to use positive reinforcement as my behavior modification plan. Positive