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Nowadays most of people seem to think that Europe has always been a natural cultural and political area, but it was constructed through the intersection of capitalism expanding from the cities, coercion and regulation exercised by centralizing states, and contention fought out among states and between them and their people.

Introduction


In Middle Ages there were tree independent dukedoms: Gelderland and Brabant, counties of Holland, Zeeland and Flanders, and episcopacy of Utrecht. In 1370 in order to protect own interests the cities of Holland, Zeeland and Utrecht as well as the episcopacy of Utrecht established trading-political Hanseatic League. It carried out in practice the intermediation between West, North and East Europe and had a trading hegemony in Northern Europe. In the XV century there was a beginning of state main political institutions formation. The protoplast of future parliament - The States-General - was framed in 1463.
Since 1482 the territory of Nederland was a part of Habsburg's realm, and since 1556 a part of Spanish Habsburg's realm. During the times of Charles V regiment (1500 - 1558), there was completed the process of integration with contemporary Belgium and Luxemburg and later on formed the one and undivided state of Hole Roman Empire. In this period of time the term "Dutch Republic" came into existence.
In economically developed regions there were circulated monetary rent and different kinds ...
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