He is like most of the children diagnosed with Aspergers syndrome including that he has poor social skills to get him away from bullies (Asperger, 1991, pp.37-92).
Bullying has been in existence for decades, and some countries like Australia and England have had bullying problems for centuries. It is only since the 1980s, when "three middle school boys" from Norway "committed suicide" (Green, 2007, para.2) as a consequence of repeated bullying. Because of this reason, attention has been placed on the issues of bullying. There has been a great increase in the younger children committing suicide because of bullying which makes these younger people to go on violent rampages, it is hardly surprising that public concern with student safety has also led to an increased awareness of the consequences of bullying.
Recent research has focused on both bullies and victims in a number of terms but this literature review will focus on research in relation to gender and age, and the accountings for victims and bullies. The research will be focusing on the gender as factor of bullying seeing is there is any difference in the way the girls or the boys are involved in bullying. Age as a factor will be considered and the psychological angles of bullying will be covered.
In the research literature there have been a number of definitions ...
" Olweus claimed there were two sorts of bullying - direct, wherein the victim is subjected to physical abuse, and indirect, wherein the victim suffers psychological or emotional mistreatment (as cited in Green, 2007, para.1) Gray has defined bullying as repeated damaging actions that were perhaps linked with negative intent (as cited in Attwood, 2004, What is bullying section, para.1).
Seals and Young, (2003) carried out a study on the occurrence and relationship of bullying to gender, age, ethnicity, self esteem and depression, experienced by seventh and eighth grade students in the northern delta region of the US. The study has shown that there were considerably more male than female bullies, with "twice as many males identified as females identified as bullies" (Discussion section, para.2). Delfabbro et al. (2006) carried out a study on bullying by peers and teachers in secondary schools in South Australia. The results have truly reflected the fact that the boys are "more likely to be the perpetrators of bullying" (Delfabbro et al. 2006, p.72).
The violent nature in bullying boys has been noticed and it has been found that boys are likely to be more violent and they can cause injury, therefore bullying by more overt physical means (Benbenishty & Astor, 2005, p.13). Girls, on the other hand, tend to be more covert and devious, utilizing such means as spiteful rumor mongering and telling tales or gossiping (Geffner et al., 2002, p.27). Delfabbro et al. (2006) stated that "girls are significantly more likely to use non-physical aggression" (Delfabbro et al. 2006, p.72)
It has been noticed that the same gender children bully the same gender children as boys are bullied by boys and girls are bullied by girls (Hilarski et al, 2004). It has been found in